Common Structural Details and Deficiencies in Indonesian RC Buildings: Preliminary Report on Field Investigation in Padang City, West Sumatra

Syafri Wardi, Yasushi Sanada, Michihiro Kita, Jafril Tanjung, Maidiawati Maidiawati


Significant damage to reinforced concrete buildings by the 2009 Western Sumatera Earthquake revealed that deficiencies in design engineering and/or construction practice existed. This indicated that enforcement of building design codes was lacking. The Indonesian government has updated the building design codes which should have been applied in the construction of new buildings. However, enforcement of these codes on design engineering and/or construction practice in Padang city is not clear. In this study, a field investigation was performed to investigate common structural details and deficiencies in newly constructed multi-story reinforced concrete buildings. The investigation was conducted through visiting building construction sites in Padang city area. This study preliminary reports the investigation results on 39 private buildings and 8 government buildings. The common deficiencies found on the investigated buildings were low material quality, small structural dimensions with light longitudinal reinforcement, insufficient transverse reinforcement with poor details, improper location of lap splice of rebar, lack of hoops inside exterior and interior beam-column joints, and deficient anchorage of beam reinforcement to exterior beam-column joints. These investigation results clarify that enforcement of the latest buildings design codes in design engineering and/or construction practice is still lacking in the investigated area.


Beam-column joint; deficiency; Indonesia; onsite investigation; reinforced concrete.

Full Text:



EERI, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, “Learning from earthquakes the Mw 7.6 Western Sumatra Earthquake of September 30, 2009,†EERI Special Earthquake Report, pp. 1–12, 2009.

Design Procedure of Earthquake Resistance for Buildings and Other Structures, National Standardization Agency of Indonesia, SNI 1726:2012, 2012.

Requirements for Structural Concrete for Buildings, National Standardization Agency of Indonesia, SNI 2847:2013, 2013.

H. Choi, Y. Nakano, Y. Sanada, H. Kuramoto, T. Tomonaga, Maidiawati, Y. Hayati and J. Tanjung, “Analytical Estimation of Seismic Response of a Typical R/C Building Damaged by the 2009 West Sumatra Earthquake in Indonesia,†in Proc. 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Sept. 2012.

Maidiawati, Yasushi Sanada, and Jafril Tanjung, “Seismic Performance Evaluation of Earthquake-Damaged Buildings in Indonesia Affected by Brick Masonry Infill,†Proceedings of the 16th Japan-Taiwan-Korea Joint Seminar on Earthquake Engineering for Building Structures, pp. 195-204, Sept. 2014.

Tatsuo Narafu, Toyokazu Shimizu, Yasushi Sanada, Yukio Tamura, Noriyuki Mita, Susumu Takahashi, Hayato Nakamura and Atsuko Itsuki, “Lessons Learnt from Damage to Buildings by Bohol Earthquake and Typhoon Yolanda 2013 in the Philippines,†Bulletin of IISEE, Vol. 49, pp. 39-61, Feb. 2015.

Yasushi Sanada, Yuebing Li, and Koki Maekawa, “Seismic Performance Evaluation and Retrofit of an R/C Frame with Brittle Beam-Column Joint Damaged by the 2013 Bohol, Philippines Earthquake,†in Proc. Response of Structures under Extreme Loading, pp. 455-462, June 2015.

Dipendra Gautam, Krishna Kumar Bhetwal, Hugo Rodrigues, Pramod Neupane, and Yasushi Sanada, “Observed Damage Patterns on Buildings during 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake,†in Proc. 14th International Symposium on New Technology for Urban Safety of Mega Cities in Asia, Paper ID SN3-7, Oct. 2015.

Dipendra Gautam, Hugo Rodrigues, Krishna Kumar Bhetwal, Pramod Neupane and Yasushi Sanada, “Common structural and construction deficiencies of Nepalese buildings,†Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, Vol. 1, Issue 1, March 2016.

Zaidir, Rendy Thamrin, and Erick Dalmantias, “Evaluation of Pre-Cracked RC Beams with Sealant Injection Methods,†International Journal on Advanced Science Engineering Information Technology, vol. 7 (2017) No.2, pp-380-386, 2017.

M. Jasssam and M. Altaee, “Effect of CFRP Plate Location on Flexural Behavior of RC Beam Strengthened with CFRP Plate,†International Journal on Advanced Science Engineering Information Technology, vol. 1 (2011) No.6, pp-592-596, 2017.

BPS Kota Padang, Padang in Figures 2014, 2014.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development