The Effect of TiO2 Particles Addition on The Characteristics of Polysulfone Membrane

Nurul Nadiah Said, Fazlena Hamzah, Nur Azrini Ramlee, Nur Najwa Yunus


The aim of this study was to characterize the modified Polysulfone-TiO2 membrane via hydrophilic character, the molecular weight cutoff of the membrane and surface morphology of the membrane. Flat sheet modified Polysulfone membrane was prepared by using the phase inversion technique. N-methylene-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as a solvent to dilute Polysulfone pellets. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were added to enhance the hydrophobic character of the Polysulfone membrane. The hydrophilic characteristic of the modified Polysulfone-TiO2 membrane was analyzed by contact angle and was compared with conventional Polysulfone membrane. It was found that the addition of TiO2 in Polysulfone membrane has improved the hydrophilic performance of Polysulfone membrane toward water flux. The membranes also were tested with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) using different weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG) which are 200, 400, 600 and 1000 Da. For membrane with the addition of TiO2, a decreased in pore sizeswas determined. The membranes also were analyzed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to determine the morphology of the surface and cross-section. It was found that pore sizes of Polysulfone with TiO2 membrane has become smaller, which contain more nano in size and formation of finger-like voids compared to the Polysulfone membrane.


Titanium Dioxide; Polysulfone; hydrophilic; molecular weight; morphology

Full Text:



Zheng QZ, Yuan JS. Effect of TiO2 Concentration on Structure and Performance of Polysulfone Hollow-Fiber Ultrafiltration Membrane. Adv Mater Res [Internet]. 2013;703:53–7. Available from:

Yang Y, Wang P, Zheng Q. Preparation and properties of polysulfone/TiO2 composite ultrafiltration membranes. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys. 2006;44(5):879–87.

Shamel MM, Ramachandran KB, Hasan M. Effect of hollow Fiber Membrane Material and Operating Conditions on Lipase Adsorption. 2003;1–6.

Guo Z, Martucci NJ, Moreno-Olivas F, Tako E, Mahler GJ. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle ingestion alters nutrient absorption in an in vitro model of the small intestine. NanoImpact [Internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 2017;5:70–82. Available from:

Abdelrasoul A, Doan H, Lohi A, Cheng C-H. Morphology Control of Polysulfone Membranes in Filtration Processes: a Critical Review. ChemBioEng Rev [Internet]. 2015;2(1):22–43. Available from:

Ali A. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Polysulfone/Cellulose Acetate Phthalate/ Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Psf/Cap/Pvp) Blend Ultrafiltration Membranes. Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang; 2013.

Homayoonfal M, Akbari A. Preparation of Polysulfone Nano-Structured Membrane for Sulphate Ions Removal From Water. Nano. 2010;7(5):407–12.

Hamzah F, Manshor NM, Suhaili N, Puji M, Nur S, Nanihar F, et al. THE EFFECT OF TITANIUM OXIDE ON CHARACTERISTIC OF POLYSULFONE. 2015;16(1):47–52.

Emadzadeh D, Lau WJ, Matsuura T, Rahbari-Sisakht M, Ismail a. F. A novel thin film composite forward osmosis membrane prepared from PSf-TiO2 nanocomposite substrate for water desalination. Chem Eng J [Internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 2014;237:70–80. Available from:

Ying Tao Chung AWM. Effects of membrane fabrication conditions towards the performance of nanoparticles- incorporated membranes Jurnal Teknologi EFFECTS. J Teknol. 2017;(5–3).

Boussu K, Van der Bruggen B, Volodin a., Van Haesendonck C, Delcour J a., Van der Meeren P, et al. Characterization of commercial nanofiltration membranes and comparison with self-made polyethersulfone membranes. Desalination. 2006;191(1–3):245–53.

Madaeni SS, Ghaemi N, Alizadeh a., Joshaghani M. Influence of photo-induced superhydrophilicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the anti-fouling performance of ultrafiltration membranes. Appl Surf Sci [Internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 2011;257(14):6175–80. Available from:

Pintilie SC, Tiron LG, Birsan IG, Ganea D, Balta S. Influence of ZnO Nanoparticle Size and Concentration on the Polysulfone Membrane Performance. Mater Plast. 2017;54(2):257–61.

Leong S, Razmjou A, Wang K, Hapgood K, Zhang X, Wang H. TiO2 based photocatalytic membranes: A review. J Memb Sci. 2014;472(March 2015):167–84.

Sangyoup Lee, Gunyoung Park , Gary Amy, Seung-Kwang Hong, Seung-Hyeon Moon, Duck-Hee Lee JC. Determination of membrane pore size distribution using the fractional rejection of nonionic and charged macromolecules. J Memb Sci. 2002;201:191–201.

Amy GL. NOM Rejection By, and Fouling Of, NF and UF Membranes. Nanofiltration - American Water Works Association; 2001. 374 p.

Subrahmanyan S. An Investigation of Pore Collapse in Asymmetric Polysulfone Membranes. Doctor of Philosophy in Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia; 2003.

Jyothi MS, Nayak V, Padaki M, Geetha Balakrishna R, Ismail a. F. The effect of UV irradiation on PSf/TiO2 mixed matrix membrane for chromium rejection. Desalination [Internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 2014;354:189–99. Available from:

N.S Mohd Sabri, M.Q.A.Z.Z. Azlan, H. Hasbullah, N. Said, W.J. Lau, N. Ibrahim SAR. Effect of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Loading on Polysulfone Ultrafiltration Membrane. J Eng Appl Sci. 2017;12(18):4745–51.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development