Characteristics of Anthocyanin as Natural Dyes from Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) on Regions Growing in North Maluku

Sri Soenarsih, Zauzah Abdullatif, - Nurhasanah, Hamidin Rasulu


Butterfly pea has the potential to be a natural dye. The identification of anthocyanin compounds and anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of butterfly pea flowers that grow in several regions in North Maluku need to be traced to identify the quality of anthocyanin content from late flowers. The research samples for the butterfly pea flower came from seven growing regions in North Maluku, and this study aimed to identify the phytochemical components of anthocyanins using the GC-MS method and to determine antioxidant activity using the DPPH method in ethanol extracts defined using the spectrophotometric method. The data obtained revealed the results of GC-MS phytochemicals and confectionery was identified as approximately 4-7 anthocyanin compounds with varying retention time peaks, with the best growth area for the highest anthocyanin content in Fitu Ternate with 35.38%, the Tidore region 33.92% and Maliaro 33.22%. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis results are intended to filter phytochemical, functional component groups presented by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT-IR) in ethanol extract of Clitoria ternatea flowers. The results showed that the antioxidant activity test obtained IC50 values on dried eagle flower extracts from several growing areas in North Maluku, which ranged from 39,009 – 74,481 μg / ml. IC50 values are best produced in the growing area of Fitu Ternate and Tidore of 39,01 and 39,37 criteria for oxidant activity with powerful free radical inhibition.


Clitoria ternatea; anthocyanins; natural dyes, antioxidants, growing regions

Full Text:



H. Hariadi, M. Sunyoto. B. Nurhadi and A. Karuniawan. "Comparison of phytochemical characteristics pigmen extract (Antosianin) sweet purple potatoes powder (Ipomoea batatas L) and clitoria flower (Clitoria ternatea) as natural dye powder". Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 7(4): 3420-3429. 2018.

AQ. Syafa’atullah, A, Arie Amira, S. Sonya Hidayati and M. Mahfud. "Anthocyanin from butterfly pea flowers (Clitoria ternatea) by ultrasonic-assisted Extraction". AIP Conference Proceedings. 2020.

B. Anthika, S.P. Kusumocahyo, and H. Sutanto. ""Ultrasonic approach in Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) extraction in water and extract sterilization by ultrafiltration for eye drop active ingredient". Procedia Chemistry, 16, 237-244. 2015.

N. M. Thuy, V. Q.. Minh, T. C. Ben, M.T. Thi Nguyen, H.T. N. Ha, and N. V. Tai. "Identification of anthocyanin compounds in butterfly pea flowers (C. ternatea L.) by ultra performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet coupled to mass spectrometry". Molecules, 26(15), 4539. 2021.

P. Kumari and B. Bhargava. "Phytochemicals from edible flowers: Opening a new arena for healthy lifestyle". Journal of Functional Foods, 78, 104375. 2021.

H. E. Khoo, A. Azlan, S.T. Tang, and S.M. Lim. "Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: Coloured pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits". Food & nutrition research, 61(1), 1361779. 2017.

E. H. Kim, O.K. Lee, J.K. Kim, S.L. Kim, J. Lee, S.H. Kim, I.MM. Chung. "Isoflavones and anthocyanins analysis in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merill) from three different planting locations in Korea". Field Crops Res 156: 76–83. 2014.

J. H. Y. Galani, P. M. Mankad, A. K. Shah, N. J. Patel, R. R Acharya, and J.G. Talati, "Effect of storage temperature on vitamin C, total phenolics, UPLC phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of eleven potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties". Horticultural Plant Journal, 3(2), 73-89. 2017.

A. Kumar, K.C. Singhal, R.A. Sharma, K.V. Govind and V. Kumar. "Total Phenolic and Antioxidant Activity of in Different Geographical Locations of Rajasthan Catharanthus Roseus". Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci. Vol 4 (1): 155-158. 2014.

G. C. V. Gamage, Y. Y. Lim, and W. S.. Choo. "Anthocyanins from Clitoria ternatea flower: Biosynthesis, extraction, stability, antioxidant activity, and applications". Frontiers in Plant Science, 12. 2021.

T. N. Pham, X. T. Le, P. T. N.. Nguyen, T. H. Tran, T. P. Dao, D. H. Nguyen, and H. L. T. Anh, "Effects of storage conditions on total anthocyanin content of Butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea L.)". In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 736, No. 6, p. 062005). IOP Publishing. 2020.

T. T. Vuong and P. Hongsprabhas. "Influences of pH on binding mechanisms of anthocyanins from butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea) with whey powder and whey protein isolate". Cogent Food & Agriculture, 7(1), 1889098. 2021.

S. Lin, X. Meng, C. Tan, Y. Tong, M.Wan, M.Wang and Y. Ma. "Composition and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa extracted using an Ultrasonic-Microwave-Assisted Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent extraction method". Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 106102. 2022.

J. S. de Morais, A. S. Sant'Ana, A. M. Dantas, B. S. Silva, M.S. Lima, G.C. Borges and M. Magnani, "Antioxidant activity and bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds in white, red, blue, purple, yellow and orange edible flowers through a simulated intestinal barrier". Food Research International, 131, 109046. 2020.

Z. Sapiun, P. S. Wicita, A. S. Buloto, V. Kamba, A.K. Imran, W. A. A. Buana and Y. Banne. "Preparation and Characterization of Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) Nanoemulgel". Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 10(A), 585-589. 2022.

A. E. Al-Snafi, "Pharmacological importance of Clitoria ternatea–A review". IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 6(3), 68-83. 2016.

E. J. Jeyaraj, Y. Y. Lim and W. S. Choo. "Extraction methods of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L) flower and biological activities of its phytochemicals". Journal of food science and technology, 58(6), 2054-2067. 2021.

D.Y. Zhang, Yi wan, Run-Ze Hu, Jing-Hi Hao. "Evaluation of the alkaloid, polyphenols, and antioxidant contents of various mulberry cultivars from different planting areas in eastern China". Industrial Crops and Products, 15 out. 2018. v.122, p.298–307. 2018.

B. Srichaikul, "Ultrasonication extraction, bioactivity, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid, total phenolic and antioxidant of Clitoria ternatea linn flower extract for anti-aging drinks". Pharmacognosy Magazine, 14(56), 322. 2018.

G. D’Urso, J. M. Jurriaan P. Paola Montoro, D.H. Robert and C.H. Ric de Vos. "Identification of Bioactive hytochemicals in Mulberries". Metabolites Vol 10 ( 7): 2-16. 2020.

P. de Aguiar Cipriano, H. Kim, C. Fang, V. P. Venancio, S.U. Mertens-Talcott and S. T. Talcott. "In vitro digestion, absorption and biological activities of acylated anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)". Food Chemistry, 374, 131076. 2022.

S. A. T. Lakshan, N. Y. Jayanath, W. P. K. M. Abeysekera and W. K. S. M. Abeysekera, "A commercial potential blue pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) flower extract incorporated beverage having functional properties". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2019.

X. Si, Q. Chen, J. Bi, X. Wu, J. Yi, L. Zhou and Z. Li. "Comparison of different drying methods on the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96(6), 2055-2062. 2016.

M. Al-Duais, L. Müller, V. Böhm and G. Jetschke, "Antioxidant capacity and total phenolics of Cyphostemma digitatum before and after processing: use of different assays". European food research and technology, 228(5), 813-821. 2009.

M. G. Morais, A. A. Saldanha, L. S. Azevedo, I. C. Mendes, J. P. C. Rodrigues, P. A. Amado and L. A. R. dos Santos Lima. "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of fractions from ripe fruits of Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil.(Solanaceae) and putative identification of bioactive compounds by GC–MS and LC-DAD-MS". Food Research International, 156, 111145. 2022.

N. Jiménez, L. Carrillo-Hormaza, A. Pujol, F. Ãlzate, E. Osorio and O. Lara-Guzman. "Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of commonly used anti-inflammatory medicinal plants in Colombia". Industrial Crops and Products, 70, 272-279. 2015.

Z. Shang, M. Li, W. Zhang, S. Cai, X. Hu and J. Yi. "Analysis of phenolic compounds in pickled chayote and their effects on antioxidant activities and cell protection". Food Research International, 157, 111325. 2022.

C. Cirak, J. Radusiene, L. Raudone, G. Vilkickyte, F. Seyis, M. Marksa, and F. Yayla. "Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Achillea arabica populations". South African Journal of Botany, 147, 425-433. 2022.

G. Toydemir, B. G. Subasi, R. D. Hall, J. Beekwilder, D. Boyacioglu, and E. Capanoglu. "Effect of food processing on antioxidants, their bioavailability and potential relevance to human health". Food Chemistry: X, 100334. 2022.

H. M. Ali, W. Almagribi and M. N. Al-Rashidi. "Antiradical and reductant activities of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins, structure–activity relationship and synthesis". Food Chemistry, 194, 1275-1282. 2016.

Akbari, A., Izadi-Darbandi, A., Bahmani, K., Farhadpour, M., Ebrahimi, M., Ramshini, H., & Esmaeili, Z. Assessment of phenolic profile, and antioxidant activity in developed breeding populations of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 48, 102639. 2023



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development