Utilization of Clinker Brick Used for No-Fines Concrete

- Wesli, Muhammad Kabir Ihsan


Clinker bricks go into excessive temperatures during the process, are waste in brick making, and tend to be unusable, but it can be used as an alternative material to coarse aggregate in concrete mixtures. This research is about clinker brick waste which is used as coarse aggregate in no-fines concrete with a water-cement ratio is 0.45 with a volume ratio of 1:3 for 4 sample variations at different concrete ages where a mixture of four variations 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% will be tested at concrete age 7 days, 14 days, 28 days. The results have shown that the greatest concrete compressive strength at age 7 days, 25% mix is 19.22 MPa, and the lowest 50% mix is 13.99 MPa. For 14 days, the greatest compressive strength at variation 1 without clinker bricks (0%) compressive strength 16.78 MPa, and that the lowest at variation 3 with 50% at 11.71 MPa. For 28 days, concrete ages are the normal age commonly used, the most significant concrete compressive strength at 25% mix with compressive strength of 6.59 MPa and the lowest at 50% mix 10.27 MPa. The best compressive strength at 25% mix variation 2 with compressive strength of 16.59 MPa but still smaller than the reference design f'c ≤20 Mpa. Based on the weight of No-fine Concrete 70% lighter, that concrete without fines using clinker bricks, although lighter, cannot be for structural concrete because compressive strength tends to decrease, but it can still be for nonstructural concrete.


Compressive strength; clinker brick; coarse aggregate; substitute; no-fines concrete.

Full Text:



Central Bureau of Statistics of Lhokseumawe City, “Lhokseumawe City In Figures Year 2021,†Bappeda Lhokseumawe, Lhokseumawe, Indonesia, 2021, 2021.

L. Evangelista and J. de Brito, “Durability of crushed fine recycled aggregate concrete assessed by permeability-related properties,†Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 71, no. 21, pp. 1142–1150, Nov. 2019, doi: 10.1680/jmacr.18.00093.

I. A. Levitskii and O. N. Khoruzhik, “Relationship of Properties, Phase Composition, and Microstructure of Clinker Brick,†Glass Ceram, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 193–199, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.1007/s10717-021-00377-x.

H. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. E. Lehman, Y. Geng, and K. Kuder, “Time-dependent drying shrinkage model for concrete with coarse and fine recycled aggregate,†Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 105, p. 103426, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2019.103426.

K. N. Rahal and W. Hassan, “Shear strength of plain concrete made of recycled low-strength concrete aggregates and natural aggregates,†Construction and Building Materials, vol. 311, p. 125317, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.125317.

M. Chakradhara Rao, “Influence of brick dust, stone dust, and recycled fine aggregate on properties of natural and recycled aggregate concrete,†Structural Concrete, vol. 22, no. S1, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1002/suco.202000103.

W. Dheyab, “Soil Stabilization With Geopulymers For Low Cost And Environmentally Friendly Construction,†GEOMATE, vol. 17, no. 63, Nov. 2019, doi: 10.21660/2019.63.8159.

A. Dias Martins, D. Camotim, P. Borges Dinis, M. Chen, and B. Young, “Localâ€distortional interaction in coldâ€formed steel lipped channel beams: Experimental investigation,†Steel Construction, p. stco.202200018, Oct. 2022, doi: 10.1002/stco.202200018.

K. Muthusamy, A. M. A. Budiea, S. M. Syed Mohsin, N. S. Muhammad Zam, and N. E. Ahmad Nadzri, “Properties of fly ash cement brick containing palm oil clinker as fine aggregate replacement,†Materials Today: Proceedings, p. S2214785320353530, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.07.260.

N. Makul and G. Sua-iam, “A State of The Art Review of Green Concrete,†Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat: Science and Technology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 178–199, 2018.

V. Sharma, A. Kumar, and A. Kaur, “Sustainable deployment of crushed concrete aggregates strengthened with cement and sand,†Archives of Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 19–34, Jan. 2022, doi: 10.5604/01.3001.0015.6970.

J. Junák and N. Junáková, “Recycled aggregate amount variation of fraction 4/8 mm and 8/16 mm in the concrete mixture,†Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 49–54, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1515/sspjce-2020-0017.

M. A. Memon, M. A. Bhutto, N. A. Lakho, I. A. Halepoto, and A. N. Memon, “Effects of Uncrushed Aggregate on the Mechanical Properties of No-Fines Concrete,†Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 2882–2886, 2018.

N. Saenz, E. Sebastián, and G. Cultrone, “Analysis of tempered bricks: from raw material and additives to fired bricks for use in construction and heritage conservation,†European Journal of Mineralogy, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 301–312, Jun. 2019, doi: 10.1127/ejm/2019/0031-2832.

K. Kueaket and D. Tonnayopas, “Sustainable mortar and concrete made from palm oil boiler clinker aggregate comprising rice husk ash and calcium bentonite: Compressive strength and durability assessment,†j.appsci, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 39–55, Jun. 2021, doi: 10.14416/j.appsci.2021.01.004.

N. Saenz, E. Sebastián, and G. Cultrone, “Analysis of tempered bricks: from raw material and additives to fired bricks for use in construction and heritage conservation,†ejm, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 301–312, Jun. 2019, doi: 10.1127/ejm/2019/0031-2832.

J. Park and R. Tucker, “Overcoming barriers to the reuse of construction waste material in Australia: a review of the literature,†International Journal of Construction Management, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 228–237, 2017.

F. Abutaha, H. A. Razak, and J. Kanadasan, “Effect of palm oil clinker (POC) aggregates on fresh and hardened properties of concrete,†Construction and Building Materials, vol. 112, pp. 416–423, 2016, doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.172.

X. Chen, E. Gruyaert, and J. Li, “Modelling the effect of coarse recycled concrete aggregate on compressive strength of Portland cement concrete using volume fraction-based approach,†Construction and Building Materials, vol. 309, p. 125159, Nov. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.125159.

K. K. a Tam Mohammad Mojtahedi a, Changxin Wang a, Vivian W. Y., “Construction and demolition waste management contributing factors coupled with reduce, reuse, and recycle strategies for effective waste management: A review,†Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 263, no. 1, Agustus 2019, doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121265.

G. A. Salman and S. A. Salih, “Effect of Firing Temperatures on Physico - Mechanical Properties of Clay Bricks Containing Reeds,†International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 321–328, 2019.

Z. A. Tunio, B. A. Memon, N. A. Memon, N. A. Lakho, M. Oad, and A. H. Buller, “Effect of Coarse Aggregate Gradation and Water-Cement Ratio on Unit Weight and Compressive Strength of No-fines Concrete,†Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3785–3788, 2019, doi: · 10.13140/RG.2.2.22042.49607.

M. Carsana, F. Tittarelli, and L. Bertolini, “Use of no-fines concrete as a building material: Strength, durability properties and corrosion protection of embedded steel,†Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 48, pp. 64–73, 2017, doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2013.02.006.

M.-T. Chen and B. Young, “Material properties and structural behavior of cold-formed steel elliptical hollow section stub columns,†Thin-Walled Structures, vol. 134, pp. 111–126, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.tws.2018.07.055.

F. Oka and B. Boutillier, “Compressional wave propagation characteristics through a water saturated gradient-dependent viscoelastic porous material,†in Poromechanics II, 1st ed., J.-L. Auriault, C. Geindreau, P. Royer, J.-F. Bloch, C. Boutin, and J. Lewandowska, Eds. CRC Press, 2020, pp. 723–729. doi: 10.1201/9781003078807-114.

R. Kask, H. Lille, M. Kiviste, R. Tamm, V. Reigo, and J. O. Lääne, “Evaluation of mechanical properties of OSB/3 after repetitive soaking and oven-drying cycles,†Wood Material Science & Engineering, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 358–365, Nov. 2021, doi: 10.1080/17480272.2020.1723137.

B. Khamidov and A. Urinov, “Water Absorption Ana Water Resistance Of Popyizor-M Waterproofing Material,†UniTech, vol. 98, no. 5–8, May 2022, doi: 10.32743/UniTech.2022.98.5.13791.

C. Druta, “Concrete Microstructure Characterization and Performance,†in Compressive Strength of Concrete, P. Kryvenko, Ed. IntechOpen, 2020. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.90500.

Katherine Bourzac, “2D material has record-breaking thermal properties,†C&EN, pp. 6–6, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.47287/cen-09936-scicon1.

L. Rouhi, “Hard work takes you where luck can find you,†JCA, 2021, doi: 10.20517/jca.2021.03.

Y. Zhao, J. Gao, F. Chen, C. Liu, and X. Chen, “Utilization of waste clay bricks as coarse and fine aggregates for the preparation of lightweight aggregate concrete,†Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 201, pp. 706–715, 2018.

I. A. Rastorguev, “Two-Dimensional Flow and Mass Transport through Variably Saturated Porous Media from a Surface Waste Storage,†Water Resour, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 211–221, Mar. 2020, doi: 10.1134/S0097807820020141.

L. Heidari and M. Jalili Ghazizade, “Recycling of spent industrial soil in manufacturing process of clay brick,†Process Safety and Environmental Protection, vol. 145, pp. 133–140, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.psep.2020.08.004.

M. O. Khalaf and B. M. Issa, “Determining the Physical and Chemical Properties of the Soils in Babylon and Al-Qadisiyyah for Manufacturing Clay Bricks,†The Iraqi Geological Journal, pp. 100–116, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.46717/igj.54.2C.10Ms-2021-09-29.

B. Habibilah and S. Widodo, “Experimental test on styrofoam waste addition as a partial substitute for fine aggregate to specific gravity, compressive strength, and modulus of concrete elasticity,†JEATech, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 20–26, Mar. 2022, doi: 10.21831/jeatech.v3i1.42550.

M. Eckert and M. Oliveira, “Mitigation of the negative effects of recycled aggregate water absorption in concrete technology,†Construction and Building Materials, vol. 133, pp. 416–424, 2017.

S. Hou, Z. Duan, J. Xiao, L. Li, and Y. Bai, “Effect of moisture condition and brick content in recycled coarse aggregate on rheological properties of fresh concrete,†Journal of Building Engineering, vol. 35, p. 102075, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jobe.2020.102075.

S. Sahoo, A. K. Selvaraju, and S. Suriya Prakash, “Mechanical characterization of structural lightweight aggregate concrete made with sintered fly ash aggregates and synthetic fibres,†Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 113, p. 103712, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2020.103712.

Y. Song and M. J. Rau, “Characterization of Aggregate Disruption Using Organic Marine Particles and Particle Tracking Measurements in Rotating/Oscillating Aggregation Tanks,†in Volume 5: Multiphase Flow, San Francisco, California, USA, Jul. 2019, p. V005T05A066. doi: 10.1115/AJKFluids2019-5499.

P. S. Patil, I. P. Sonar, and S. Shinde, “No Fine Concrete,†International Journal of Concrete Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 2456–8317, 2017.

W. Ni, C. Xu, and K. Wang, “Estimations for aggregate amount of claims in a risk model with arbitrary dependence between claim sizes and inter-arrival times,†MATH, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 17737–17746, 2022, doi: 10.3934/math.2022976.

H. Çi̇Çek and İ. A. Gönül, “Comparison of lightweight and normal-weight aggregate concrete,†DÜMF MD, Aug. 2022, doi: 10.24012/dumf.1142146.

H. Nakamura, T. Nanri, T. Miura, and S. Roy, “Experimental investigation of compressive strength and compressive fracture energy of longitudinally cracked concrete,†Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 93, pp. 1–18, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2018.06.015.

“Three week versus six week immobilisation for stable Weber B type ankle fractures: randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial,†BMJ, p. l457, Feb. 2019, doi: 10.1136/bmj.l457.

A. Farzampour, “Compressive Behavior of Concrete under Environmental Effects,†in Compressive Strength of Concrete, P. Kryvenko, Ed. IntechOpen, 2020. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.85675.

I. MiliÄević, N. Å tirmer, and D. Bjegović, “Relation between the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete with crushed brick and roof tile aggregates: MILIÄŒEVIĆ ET AL .,†Structural Concrete, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 366–375, Apr. 2017, doi: 10.1002/suco.201500207.

E. A. M. Al-Ghalibi and S. A.Mohamad, “Evaluate the durability and effect of water absorption of recycled aggregate used in pavement,†Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 42, pp. 2561–2565, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.12.579.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.13.1.16348


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development