Greenhouse Monitoring and Automation Using Arduino: a Review on Precision Farming and Internet of Things (IoT)

Irfan Ardiansah, Nurpilihan Bafdal, Edy Suryadi, Awang Bono


The 21st century became the beginning of the development of information technology, where one of the revolutions was the presence of the Internet of Things. Internet of Things or abbreviated as IoT is a technology that combines electronic devices, sensors, and the internet to manage data and applications. The Internet of Things can be adopted in agriculture for crop management as a media for monitoring and controlling, especially in greenhouses and is called Precision Farming. The application of precision farming will be more effective in a greenhouse because it is easier to engineer similar environmental conditions. IoT development in greenhouses is using Arduino Microcontroller or Raspberry Pi Microcomputer. These devices are used because the price is low and easy to get on the market and can be designed so that technicians who have limited information technology knowledge can run it. To be able to manage greenhouses with IoT requires sensors as five senses that can detect changes that occur in the greenhouse. By using sensors, the hardware can detect what is happening in the greenhouse and make decisions based on the data acquired. Some sensors that are often used in Precision Farming are temperature and humidity sensors, soil moisture sensors, and light sensors. In the Internet of Things, the data that has been acquired by the hardware will then be transmitted wirelessly. The wireless connections used are Bluetooth, ZigBee Protocol, and Wi-Fi, where Bluetooth and Zigbee connections have a short distance between 10 - 100 meters, while Wi-Fi has a longer distance especially when connected to the Internet. The purpose of this paper is to understand the advantages and challenges of adopting IoT-based Precision Farming for monitoring and automation.


precision farming; automation; arduino UNO; protected cultivation; greenhouse.

Full Text:



V. Modani, R. Patil, and P. Puri, “IoT Based Greenhouse Monitoring System: Technical Review,†Int. Res. J. Eng. Technol., vol. 10, pp. 2395–56, 2017.

N. Castilla, Greenhouse Technology and Management, 2nd ed. Oxfordshire: CABI, 2013.

P. P. Reddy, Sustainable Crop Protection under Protected Cultivation. Springer Singapore, 2016.

M. K. Jha, S. S. Paikra, and M. R. Sahu, Protected Cultivation of Horticulture Crops. Educreation Publishing, 2019.

A. K. Sharma, S. Wahab, and R. Srivastava, Agriculture Diversification: Problems and Perspectives. I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Limited, 2010.

A. Bhosure, M. Bhosure, and R. Sharma, “Web Based Greenhouse Environment Monitoring and Controlling System using Arduino Platform,†Int. J. Sci. Eng. Appl. Sci., no. 22, pp. 2395–3470, 2016.

L. Vásquez, A. Iriarte, M. Almeida, and P. Villalobos, “Evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions and proposals for their reduction at a university campus in Chile,†J. Clean. Prod., vol. 108, pp. 924–930, 2015.

I. A. Diouf, L. Derivot, F. Bitton, L. Pascual, and M. Causse, “Water Deficit and Salinity Stress Reveal Many Specific QTL for Plant Growth and Fruit Quality Traits in Tomato,†Front. Plant Sci., vol. 9, p. 279, 2018.

P. N. Miklas, R. Delorme, and R. Riley, “Identification of QTL Conditioning Resistance to White Mold in Snap Bean,†J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. jashs, vol. 128, no. 4, 2003.

D. Hervé et al., “QTL analysis of photosynthesis and water status traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under greenhouse conditions,†J. Exp. Bot., vol. 52, no. 362, pp. 1857–1864, 2001.

C. García-Gómez, A. Obrador, D. González, M. Babín, and M. D. Fernández, “Comparative effect of ZnO NPs, ZnO bulk and ZnSO4 in the antioxidant defences of two plant species growing in two agricultural soils under greenhouse conditions,†Sci. Total Environ., vol. 589, pp. 11–24, 2017.

K.-J. Bergstrand, L. M. Mortensen, A. Suthaparan, and H. R. Gislerød, “Acclimatisation of greenhouse crops to differing light quality,†Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam)., vol. 204, pp. 1–7, 2016.

S. Till, K. Lawrence, P. Donald, and D. Schrimsher, “Nematicides, Starter Fertilizers, and Plant Growth Regulators Implementation into a Corn Production System,†Plant Heal. Prog., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 242–253, 2018.

N. Schor, S. Berman, A. Dombrovsky, Y. Elad, T. Ignat, and A. Bechar, “Development of a robotic detection system for greenhouse pepper plant diseases,†Precis. Agric., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 394–409, Jun. 2017.

C. Calderon-Cordova et al., “Wireless sensor network for real-time monitoring of temperature, humidity and illuminance in an orchid greenhouse,†in 2018 13th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 2018, pp. 1–7.

A. Kumar, G. N. Tiwari, S. Kumar, and M. Pandey, “Role of Greenhouse Technology in Agricultural Engineering,†Int. J. Agric. Res., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 364–372, 2006.

R. C. Ward, J. C. Loftis, and G. B. McBride, Design of Water Quality Monitoring Systems. Wiley, 1990.

R. T. Gazzaway et al., “Guidance on Monitoring Internal Control Systems,†Durham, 2009.

A. F. Hussein, N. A. kumar, M. Burbano-Fernandez, G. Ramírez-González, E. Abdulhay, and V. H. C. De Albuquerque, “An Automated Remote Cloud-Based Heart Rate Variability Monitoring System,†IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 77055–77064, 2018.

P. Adolfsson, C. G. Parkin, A. Thomas, and L. G. Krinelke, “Selecting the Appropriate Continuous Glucose Monitoring System - a Practical Approach,†Eur. Endocrinol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 24–29, Apr. 2018.

R. Amin, S. K. H. Islam, G. P. Biswas, M. K. Khan, and N. Kumar, “A robust and anonymous patient monitoring system using wireless medical sensor networks,†Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 80, pp. 483–495, 2018.

J. Izquierdo-Reyes, R. A. Ramirez-Mendoza, M. R. Bustamante-Bello, S. Navarro-Tuch, and R. Avila-Vazquez, “Advanced driver monitoring for assistance system (ADMAS),†Int. J. Interact. Des. Manuf., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 187–197, 2018.

Zaida, I. Ardiansah, and M. A. Rizky, “Rancang Bangun Alat Pengendali Suhu Dan Kelembaban Relatif Pada Rumah Kaca Dengan Informasi Berbasis Web,†J. Teknotan, vol. 11, no. 1, 2017.

I. Ardiansah, S. H. Putri, A. Y. Wibawa, and D. M. Rahmah, “Optimalisasi Ketersediaan Air Tanaman dengan Sistem Otomasi Irigasi Tetes Berbasis Arduino Uno dan Nilai Kelembaban Tanah,†Ultim. J. Tek. Inform., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 78–84, 2018.

Y. Hashimoto, “Computer Control of Short Term Plant Growth by Monitoring Leaf Temperature,†in Acta Horticulturae, 1980, no. 106, pp. 139–146.

T. A. Hughes, Measurement and Control Basics, 4th ed. Durham: The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, 2006.

L. M. Winston, Basic Hydraulics and Controls, 1st ed. Smashwords Edition, 2015.

B. R. Mehta and Y. J. Reddy, Industrial Process Automation Systems: Design and Implementation. Waltham: Elsevier Inc., 2015.

K. L. S. Sharma, Overview of Industrial Process Automation. Elsevier Science, 2011.

K. V. Shibu, Introduction to Embedded Systems, 1st ed. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2009.

N. Bencheva and N. Kostadinov, “Teaching Hardware/Software Co-design of Embedded Systems – a Case Study,†in 2017 27th EAEEIE Annual Conference (EAEEIE), 2017, pp. 1–2.

S. Nuratch, “Design and Implementation of Real-time Embedded Data Acquisition and Classification with Web-based Configuration and Visualization,†in 2018 International Conference on Embedded Systems and Intelligent Technology International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Embedded Systems (ICESIT-ICICTES), 2018, pp. 1–4.

I. Ardiansah and S. H. Putri, “Perbandingan Analisis SWOT Antara Platform Arduino UNO dan Raspberry Pi,†in Seminar Nasional MIPA, 2016, pp. 27–28.

K. Karvinen and T. Karvinen, Getting Started with Sensors: Measure the World with Electronics, Arduino, and Raspberry Pi. Maker Media, Incorporated, 2014.

P. D. R. S. K. Nikesh Gondchawar, “IoT based Smart Agriculture,†Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Commun. Eng., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 838–842, 2016.

V. Aror, D. Malonda, M. Patabo, and Y. Putung, “Utilization of Solar Cells as Energy Sources for Heating and Fan (Ex-house) in White Copra Dryers with Arduino Uno as Temperature Control,†in 2018 International Conference on Applied Science and Technology (iCAST), 2018, pp. 521–525.

Y. Wang and Z. Chi, “System of wireless temperature and humidity monitoring based on Arduino Uno platform,†Proc. - 2016 6th Int. Conf. Instrum. Meas. Comput. Commun. Control. IMCCC 2016, pp. 770–773, 2016.

J. Islam et al., “Design and Development of Microcontroller Based Wireless Humidity Monitor,†IOSR J. Electr. Electron. Eng., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 41–46, 2018.

M. S. Kumar, T. R. Chandra, D. P. Kumar, and M. S. Manikandan, “Monitoring moisture of soil using low cost homemade Soil moisture sensor and Arduino UNO,†in 2016 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS), 2016, vol. 01, pp. 1–4.

Y. S. Chang, Y. Hsiung Chen, and S. K. Zhou, “A smart lighting system for greenhouses based on Narrowband-IoT communication,†in 2018 13th International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference (IMPACT), 2018, pp. 275–278.

G. Z. Hong and C. L. Hsieh, “Application of Integrated Control Strategy and Bluetooth for Irrigating Romaine Lettuce in Greenhouse,†IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 49, no. 16, pp. 381–386, 2016.

K. V De Oliveira, H. M. Esgalha Castelli, S. J. Montebeller, and T. G. Prado Avancini, “Wireless Sensor Network for Smart Agriculture using ZigBee Protocol,†in 2017 IEEE First Summer School on Smart Cities (S3C). Proceedings, pp. 61–6.

T. Kalaivani, A. Allirani, and P. Priya, “A survey on Zigbee based wireless sensor networks in agriculture,†TISC 2011 - Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Trendz Inf. Sci. Comput., no. i, pp. 85–89, 2011.

J. Brinkhoff and J. Hornbuckle, “Characterization of WiFi signal range for agricultural WSNs,†in 2017 23rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC), 2017, pp. 1–6.

G. R. Mendez, M. A. Md Yunus, and S. C. Mukhopadhyay, “A WiFi based smart wireless sensor network for an agricultural environment,†in 2011 Fifth International Conference on Sensing Technology, 2011, pp. 405–410.

A. Becker, D. Caddell, and R. Gutierrez, “Integrated Farming System,†2012.

H. Ping, J. Wang, Z. Ma, and Y. Du, “Mini-review of application of iot technology in monitoring agricultural products quality and safety,†Int. J. Agric. Biol. Eng., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 35–45, 2018.

A. Hammami, “Smart Environment Data Monitoring,†in 2019 International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCIS), 2019, pp. 1–6.

Y. K. Taru and A. Karwankar, “Water monitoring system using arduino with labview,†in 2017 International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC), 2017, pp. 416–419.

S. O. Osman, M. Z. Mohamed, A. M. Suliman, and A. A. Mohammed, “Design and Implementation of a Low-Cost Real-Time In-Situ Drinking Water Quality Monitoring System Using Arduino,†in 2018 International Conference on Computer, Control, Electrical, and Electronics Engineering (ICCCEEE), 2018, pp. 1–7.

C. Morón, J. P. Diaz, D. Ferrández, and P. Saiz, “Design, development and implementation of a weather station prototype for renewable energy systems,†Energies, vol. 11, no. 9, 2018.

R. W. Mankin, B. B. Rohde, S. A. Mcneill, T. M. Paris, N. I. Zagvazdina, and S. Greenfeder, “ Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Responses to Microcontroller-Buzzer Communication Signals of Potential Use in Vibration Traps ,†Florida Entomol., vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 1546–1555, 2013.

G. Samseemoung, P. Soni, and P. Suwan, “Development of a variable rate chemical sprayer for monitoring diseases and pests infestation in coconut plantations,†Agric., vol. 7, no. 10, 2017.

C. Zhai, A. Landers, and B. Zhang, “An RFID-based solution for monitoring sprayer movement in an orchard/vineyard,†Precis. Agric., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 477–496, 2018.

T. Leonello, “From precision agriculture to Industry 4.0,†Br. Food J., vol. 121, no. 8, pp. 1730–1743, Jan. 2019.

M. Paustian and L. Theuvsen, “Adoption of precision agriculture technologies by German crop farmers,†Precis. Agric., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 701–716, 2017.

Y. Tian, B. Zheng, and Z. Li, “Agricultural greenhouse environment monitoring system based on Internet of Things,†in 2017 3rd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC), 2017, pp. 2981–2985.

N. Kitpo, Y. Kugai, M. Inoue, T. Yokemura, and S. Satomura, “Internet of Things for Greenhouse Monitoring System Using Deep Learning and Bot Notification Services,†in 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2019, pp. 1–4.

F. M. A. Taha, A. A. Osman, S. D. Awadalkareem, M. S. A. Omer, and R. S. M. Saadaldeen, “A Design of a Remote Greenhouse Monitoring and Controlling System Based on Internet of Things,†in 2018 International Conference on Computer, Control, Electrical, and Electronics Engineering (ICCCEEE), 2018, pp. 1–6.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development