Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste As Refuse Derived Fuel in the Cement Industry

Gabroni Sagala, Gabriel A. Kristanto, Muhammad A. Kusuma, Syifa Rizki


In Indonesia, waste processing is a very complicated problem especially in major industries such as the cement industry. Demand for cement in Indonesia is very high and recorded to reach 69.8 million tons in 2015. Indocement, the 2nd largest cement manufacturer in Indonesia, reported that in 2015 the demand for cement reached 13.32 million tons of clinker and is projected to rise by an average of 2.61% per year. Higher demand for cement results in higher energy required which leads to higher use of solid fuels (coal). Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be used as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) using advanced pre-treatment.  Pre-treatment is a way to set aside MSW material that cannot be used as energy such as glass, metal, chunks and other materials. In addition, it also serves as technology to reduce moisture content in waste. This study evaluated the potential of RDF as solid fuel in the Cement Industry. Two scenarios were tested to forecast RDF potential from 2015 to 2050 (35 years). The scenarios concerned Indonesia’s regulations on 3R Program, MSW level of service, and variables of the waste composition. Since Indocement is located in Kabupaten (District) Bogor, Indonesia, the source of RDF is also generated in the area. Kabupaten Bogor produced MSW amounting to 1,787 tons/day in 2015, and each year it will increase along with the increasing growth of population.  In 2015, the energy required to produce 12.62 million tons of clinker amounted to 9.87 billion Mcal, whereas the available energy from RDF was 1.15 billion Mcal. After the year 2050, the energy required is projected to reach 34.51 billion Mcal to produce 25 million tons of clinker, while RDF energy available for that year will only be 1.73 billion McCall, so it is necessary to close the coal in the energy shortage. RDF energy generated in Kabupaten Bogor only meets 3-6% of the energy required per year by the cement industry. It can be concluded that the use of RDF as fuel is not sufficient to cover the needs of energy in the cement industry. The need for supply in other cities in the form of MSW itself and/or solid waste meets the supply of energy in the cement industry. Receiving RDF from neighboring towns or setting up cooperation with nearby factories to process RDF can be a solution for energy shortage in the supply of RDF in Bogor.


municipal solid waste; refuse-derived fuel; waste to energy; cement industry.

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Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development