Effect of Undegraded Dietary Protein, Probiotic, and Premixes in Complete Rations on Fat-Tailed Sheep Productivity

Rahmat Hidayat, Hendi Setiyatwan, Roostita Lobo Balia, Lilis Suryaningsih, Wendry Setiyadi Putranto, Gemilang Lara Utama


Low ration efficiency and Average Daily Gain (ADG) are the key issues that sheep breeders face nowadays. This is because the quality of rations provided is still low, resulting in livestock productivity that is not optimal with its genetic potential. One of the efforts that can be done is by supplementing protected protein (Undegraded Dietary Protein) and probiotics to improve the quality of sheep rations. The aim of this study is to know the effect of administration UDP, Probiotic, and Premix on the fat-tailed sheep productivity. This study used a completely randomized design method (CRD) with 5 treatments, namely R0 (Standard Complete Feed), R1 (Standard Complete Feed with UDP Protein Source), R2 (R1 + Premix), R3 (R1 + Probiotics), and R4 (R1 + Premix + Probiotics). The statistical test used was ANOVA and then it would be followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test if the results were significant. According to the research, all treatments have no real effect (P < 0.05) against the Digestibility of Dry Matter (DDM) and the of Organic Matter (DOM). However, when compared to the control, almost all treatments have a higher value than the control. Whereas in the parameters of body Weight Gain (WG) and Dry Matter (DM) consumption, all treatments had significantly different effects (P > 0.05) with P4 (R1 + Premix + Probiotics) providing a value higher than all other treatments. As a result, the provision of rations containing UDP and Probiotics has the potential to increase sheep productivity.


UDP; probiotics; premixes; productivity; fat-tailed sheep.

Full Text:



R. Hidayat, K. A. Kamil, L. Suryaningsih, G. L. Utama, and R. L. Balia, “Effect of Macronutrient Needs on Digestibility and Average Daily Gain of Sheep (Ovisaries var. Padjadjaran, Family Bovidae),†International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 9, no. 5, Art. no. 5, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.9.5.9292.

Y. Cao, J. Yao, X. Sun, S. Liu, and G. B. Martin, “Amino Acids in the Nutrition and Production of Sheep and Goats,†in Amino Acids in Nutrition and Health: Amino Acids in the Nutrition of Companion, Zoo and Farm Animals, G. Wu, Ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021, pp. 63–79. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-54462-1_5.

R. Ramaiyulis, M. Zain, R. W. S. Ningrat, and L. Warly, “Protection of Protein in Cattle Feed Supplement from Rumen Microbial Degradation with Addition of Gambier Leaf Residue,†International J. of Zoological Research, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 6–12, 2019, doi: 10.3923/ijzr.2019.6.12.

A. Jayanegara, T. U. P. Sujarnoko, M. Ridla, M. Kondo, and M. Kreuzer, “Silage quality as influenced by concentration and type of tannins present in the material ensiled: A meta-analysis,†J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 456–465, Mar. 2019, doi: 10.1111/jpn.13050.

Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Y. Wu, H. P. Makkar, and J. Liu, “Nutritional value of detoxified Jatropha curcas seed cake protein isolates using rats as an animal model,†Anim Nutr, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 429–434, Dec. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.aninu.2018.03.003.

H. M. Abdel-Hafeez, E. S. E. Saleh, S. S. Tawfeek, I. M. I. Youssef, and A. S. A. Abdel-Daim, “Effects of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic with and without feed restriction on performance, hematological indices and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens,†Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 672–682, May 2017, doi: 10.5713/ajas.16.0535.

R. L. Balia, D. Latipudin, L. Adriani, L. Suryaningsih, A. Pratama, and G. L. Utama, “Post Transportation Analysis of Liver Biochemistry and Morphometric Colon in Broiler Supplemented by Probiotic,†International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 9, no. 6, Art. no. 6, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.9.6.10526.

E. U. Ahiwe, T. T. Tedeschi Dos Santos, H. Graham, and P. A. Iji, “Can probiotic or prebiotic yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) serve as alternatives to in-feed antibiotics for healthy or disease-challenged broiler chickens?: a review,†Journal of Applied Poultry Research, vol. 30, no. 3, p. 100164, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.japr.2021.100164.

F. Helal, A. El-Badawi, S. El-Naggar, M. Shourrap, O. Aboelazab, and S. Abu Hafsa, “Probiotics role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus subtilis in improving the health status of rabbits’ gastrointestinal tract,†Bulletin of the National Research Centre, vol. 45, no. 1, p. 66, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1186/s42269-021-00522-0.

S. F. Liao and M. Nyachoti, “Using probiotics to improve swine gut health and nutrient utilization,†Anim Nutr, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 331–343, Dec. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.aninu.2017.06.007.

P. Pupa et al., “Use of Lactobacillus plantarum (strains 22F and 25F) and Pediococcus acidilactici (strain 72N) as replacements for antibiotic-growth promotants in pigs,†Sci Rep, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 12028, Jun. 2021, doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-91427-5.

Z. Li, W. Wang, D. Liu, and Y. Guo, “Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the growth performance and intestinal health of broilers challenged with Clostridium perfringens,†Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 25, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1186/s40104-018-0243-3.

A. Terpou, A. Papadaki, I. K. Lappa, V. Kachrimanidou, L. A. Bosnea, and N. Kopsahelis, “Probiotics in Food Systems: Significance and Emerging Strategies Towards Improved Viability and Delivery of Enhanced Beneficial Value,†Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 7, p. 1591, Jul. 2019, doi: 10.3390/nu11071591.

C. Wang, J. Chuprom, Y. Wang, and L. Fu, “Beneficial bacteria for aquaculture: nutrition, bacteriostasis and immunoregulation,†Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 28–40, 2020, doi: 10.1111/jam.14383.

I. Jenny, S. Surono, and M. Christiyanto, “Production of Ammonia, Undegraded Protein and Total Protein In Vitro Kapok Seed Meal Protected with Natural Tannins [Produksi Amonia, Undegraded Protein Dan Protein Total Secara In Vitro Bungkil Biji Kapuk Yang Diproteksi Dengan Tanin Alami],†Animal Agriculture Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, Art. no. 1, 2012, Accessed: Aug. 17, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://ejournal3.undip.ac.id/index.php/aaj/article/view/223

G. L. Utama, Tyagita, I. Krissanti, D. W. Wira, and R. L. Balia, “Stress Tolerance Yeast Strain from Papaya Wastes for Bioethanol Production,†GEOMATE, vol. 17, no. 61, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.21660/2019.61.4796.

J.-E. Kim and H.-G. Lee, “Amino Acids Supplementation for the Milk and Milk Protein Production of Dairy Cows,†Animals, vol. 11, no. 7, p. 2118, Jul. 2021, doi: 10.3390/ani11072118.

J. L. Firkins, “Invited Review: Advances in rumen efficiency *,†Applied Animal Science, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 388–403, Aug. 2021, doi: 10.15232/aas.2021-02163.

P. S. Erickson and K. F. Kalscheur, “Nutrition and feeding of dairy cattle,†Animal Agriculture, pp. 157–180, 2020, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-817052-6.00009-4.

O. O. Babatunde, C. S. Park, and O. Adeola, “Nutritional Potentials of Atypical Feed Ingredients for Broiler Chickens and Pigs,†Animals, vol. 11, no. 5, p. 1196, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.3390/ani11051196.

Herni, Y. Retnani, and S. Suharti, “Effect as Feed Supplement Wafer the Nutrient Consumption and Digestibility of Pasundan Cattle,†in Contribution of Livestock Production on Food Sorveignty in Tropical Countries, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 2017, vol. 7, pp. 137–142.

P. R. Wankhade et al., “Metabolic and immunological changes in transition dairy cows: A review,†Vet World, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1367–1377, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.1367-1377.

F. Zhang, X. Nan, H. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Guo, and B. Xiong, “Effects of Propylene Glycol on Negative Energy Balance of Postpartum Dairy Cows,†Animals, vol. 10, no. 9, p. 1526, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.3390/ani10091526.

B. Li et al., “Pelleting of a Total Mixed Ration Affects Growth Performance of Fattening Lambs,†Frontiers in Veterinary Science, vol. 8, p. 100, 2021, doi: 10.3389/fvets.2021.629016.

A. K. Armayanti, J. Jamilah, M. E. Kurniawan, and D. Danial, “Broiler performance with the utilization of various levels of fermented peanut shells meal,†IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 788, no. 1, p. 012068, Jun. 2021, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/788/1/012068.

H. A. Zamzami, “The effect of the use of probiotics on complete feed on the quantity and quality of dairy cow’s milk production [Pengaruh penggunaan probiotik pada complete feed terhadap kuantitas dan kualitas produksi susu sapi perah],†Students e-Journal, vol. 4, no. 4, Art. no. 4, 2015, Accessed: Aug. 17, 2021. [Online]. Available: http://jurnal.unpad.ac.id/ejournal/article/view/8742

C. Matthews, F. Crispie, E. Lewis, M. Reid, P. W. O’Toole, and P. D. Cotter, “The rumen microbiome: a crucial consideration when optimising milk and meat production and nitrogen utilisation efficiency,†Gut Microbes, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 115–132, Sep. 2018, doi: 10.1080/19490976.2018.1505176.

M. A. Arowolo and J. He, “Use of probiotics and botanical extracts to improve ruminant production in the tropics: A review,†Animal Nutrition, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 241–249, Sep. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.aninu.2018.04.010.

W. I. Izuddin, T. C. Loh, A. A. Samsudin, and H. L. Foo, “In vitro study of postbiotics from Lactobacillus plantarum RG14 on rumen fermentation and microbial population,†R. Bras. Zootec., vol. 47, Nov. 2018, doi: 10.1590/rbz4720170255.

F. Chaucheyras-Durand, E. Chevaux, C. Martin, and E. Forano, Use of Yeast Probiotics in Ruminants: Effects and Mechanisms of Action on Rumen pH, Fibre Degradation, and Microbiota According to the Diet. IntechOpen, 2012. doi: 10.5772/50192.

S. Ghazanfar, N. Khalid, and I. A. and M. Imran, Probiotic Yeast: Mode of Action and Its Effects on Ruminant Nutrition. IntechOpen, 2017. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.70778.

H. Mayulu, N. Fauziah, M. Christiyanto, S. Sunarso, and M. I. Haris, “Digestibility Value and Fermentation Level of Local Feed-Based ration for Sheep,†anprod, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 95, Jul. 2019, doi: 10.20884/1.jap.2018.20.2.706.

F. Semwogerere, C. L. F. Katiyatiya, O. C. Chikwanha, M. C. Marufu, and C. Mapiye, “Bioavailability and Bioefficacy of Hemp By-Products in Ruminant Meat Production and Preservation: A Review,†Front Vet Sci, vol. 7, p. 572906, Sep. 2020, doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.572906.

M. Kayadoe, A. Rochana, U. H. Tanuwiria, and S. Sinaga, “Short Communication: Effect of different feed combination on the growth development of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus) in captivity,†Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, vol. 20, no. 2, Art. no. 2, Feb. 2019, doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d200231.

Z. Antunović et al., “Influence of feeding the probiotic Pioneer PDFM® to growing lambs on performances and blood composition,†Acta veterinaria, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 287–300, 2005, Accessed: Aug. 17, 2021. [Online]. Available: http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/Article.aspx?id=0567-83150504287A&AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1

M. A. Ayala-Monter et al., “Growth performance and health of nursing lambs supplemented with inulin and Lactobacillus casei,†Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1137–1144, Aug. 2019, doi: 10.5713/ajas.18.0630.

Khalid et al., “Probiotics and lamb performance: A review,†AJAR, vol. 6, no. 23, pp. 5198–5203, Oct. 2011, doi: 10.5897/AJAR11.1134.

W. S. Adem, G. K. Yadete, and W. T. Beyene, “Growth and carcass characteristics of Afar lambs at two concentrate levels supplementation and slaughter weights fed Tef Straw Basal Diet,†IJLP, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 77–85, Mar. 2019, doi: 10.5897/IJLP2018.0539.

A. a. N. B. S. Dinata, I. W. Sudarma, and D. M. R. Puspa, “Performance of Etawah Crossbred Goat Fed Different Types of Probiotics,†International Seminar on Livestock Production and Veterinary Technology, no. 0, pp. 300–306, Mar. 2016, doi: 10.14334/Proc.Intsem.LPVT-2016-p.300-306.

H. H. Titi, A. Abdullah, W. Lubbadeh, and B. Obeidat, “Growth and carcass characteristics of male dairy calves on a yeast culture-supplemented diet,†SA J. An. Sci., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 174–183, Oct. 2008, doi: 10.4314/sajas.v38i3.4125.

M. M. Abdelrahman and D. A. Hunaiti, “The effect of dietary yeast and protected methionine on performance and trace minerals status of growing Awassi lambs,†Livestock Science, vol. 115, no. 2–3, pp. 235–241, Jun. 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2007.07.015.

P. Reszka, D. Cygan-Szczegielniak, H. Jankowiak, A. Cebulska, B. Mikołajczak, and J. Bogucka, “Effects of Effective Microorganisms on Meat Quality, Microstructure of the Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, and Electrophoretic Protein Separation in Pigs Fed on Different Diets,†Animals, vol. 10, no. 10, p. 1755, Sep. 2020, doi: 10.3390/ani10101755.

U. H. Tanuwiria, “Efek Level Tanin pada Proteksi Protein Tepung Keong Mas (Pomacea canaliculata) terhadap Fermentabilitas dan Kecernaan in vitro,†p. 9, 2019.

J. Apajalahti, K. Vienola, K. Raatikainen, V. Holder, and C. A. Moran, “Conversion of Branched-Chain Amino Acids to Corresponding Isoacids - An in vitro Tool for Estimating Ruminal Protein Degradability,†Frontiers in Veterinary Science, vol. 6, p. 311, 2019, doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00311.

A. Astuti, R. Rochijan, and B. P. Widyobroto, “Effect of Dietary Rumen Undegraded Protein (RUP) Level on Nutrient Intake and Digestion of Lactating Dairy Cows,†BuletinPeternak, vol. 44, no. 4, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.21059/buletinpeternak. v44i4.59155.

Y. Tadele and N. Amha, “Use of Different Non-Protein Nitrogen Sources in Ruminant Nutrition: A review,†p. 7, 2015.

A. K. Patra and J. R. Aschenbach, “Ureases in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminant and monogastric animals and their implication in urea-N/ammonia metabolism: A review,†J Adv Res, vol. 13, pp. 39–50, Feb. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2018.02.005.

D. Jin, S. Zhao, N. Zheng, Y. Beckers, and J. Wang, “Urea Metabolism and Regulation by Rumen Bacterial Urease in Ruminants – A Review,†Annals of Animal Science, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 303–318, May 2018, doi: 10.1515/aoas-2017-0028.

T. J. Hackmann and J. L. Firkins, “Maximizing efficiency of rumen microbial protein production,†Front Microbiol, vol. 6, p. 465, May 2015, doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00465.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.11.6.16082


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development