The Effectiveness of Land Transportation Policy and the Dynamics of Travel Planned Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia

Miming Miharja, - Mutharuddin, Lisna Rahayu, Muhammad Farda


Since 2020, Indonesia has become the country with the highest positive confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Southeast Asia. This situation has urged the Government to issue a series of policies in the transportation sector, namely the Large-Scale Social Restrictions and the new habitual adaptation period or the New Normal Period. This research aims to understand the effectiveness of both land transportation policy implementations during the COVID-19 pandemic and the dynamics of driving factors behind people’s decision to travel during those periods. By taking a sample of 941 respondents in two phases of the survey, the data were processed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Multiple Linear Regressions to be discussed in the Theory of Planned Behavior perspective. Serial data collection on two phases of travel restriction policies makes it possible to identify the dynamics of people's travel behavior. The results indicate that the policies were generally successful in reducing travel frequency. However, there were significant dynamics of intentional driving factors to travel. The upper-middle-income group has a more stable attitude between the two phases of the land transport restriction policy. On the contrary, the lower-middle-income group shows a more dynamic pattern of travel behavior with a higher intention to travel for work, particularly in the second phase. These results imply that the government’s travel restriction policies during the pandemic should consider different strategies to cope with the different factors influencing the travel decision of each group.


Transport policy; COVID-19 pandemic; planned behavior.

Full Text:



J. Zhang, Y. Hayashi, and L. D. Frank, “COVID-19 and transport: Findings from a world-wide expert survey,†Transp. Policy, vol. 103, pp. 68–85, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.01.011.

M. Lenzen et al., “Global socio-economic losses and environmental gains from the Coronavirus pandemic,†PLoS One, vol. 15, no. 7, p. e0235654, 2020, doi: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0235654.

P. Lal et al., “The dark cloud with a silver lining: Assessing the impact of the SARS COVID-19 pandemic on the global environment,†Sci. Total Environ., vol. 732, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139297.

J. Te Wei et al., “Impacts of transportation and meteorological factors on the transmission of COVID-19,†Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, vol. 230, Sep. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113610.

D. M. Barbieri et al., “A survey dataset to evaluate the changes in mobility and transportation due to COVID-19 travel restrictions in Australia, Brazil, China, Ghana, India, Iran, Italy, Norway, South Africa, United States,†Data Br., vol. 33, p. 106459, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2020.106459.

S. Luo and K. P. Tsang, “CHINA AND WORLD OUTPUT IMPACT OF THE HUBEI LOCKDOWN DURING THE CORONAVIRUS OUTBREAK,†Contemp. Econ. Policy, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 583–592, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1111/coep.12482.

D. Ivanov, “Predicting the impacts of epidemic outbreaks on global supply chains: A simulation-based analysis on the coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2) case,†Transp. Res. Part E Logist. Transp. Rev., vol. 136, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.tre.2020.101922.

A. Cartenì, L. Di Francesco, and M. Martino, “The role of transport accessibility within the spread of the Coronavirus pandemic in Italy,†Saf. Sci., vol. 133, p. 104999, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.ssci.2020.104999.

A. Abu-Rayash and I. Dincer, “Analysis of mobility trends during the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic: Exploring the impacts on global aviation and travel in selected cities,†Energy Research and Social Science, vol. 68. Elsevier Ltd, p. 101693, 01-Oct-2020, doi: 10.1016/j.erss.2020.101693.

X. Tian, C. An, Z. Chen, and Z. Tian, “Assessing the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on urban transportation and air quality in Canada,†Sci. Total Environ., vol. 765, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144270.

B. Kutela, N. Novat, and N. Langa, “Exploring geographical distribution of transportation research themes related to COVID-19 using text network approach,†Sustain. Cities Soc., vol. 67, p. 102729, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.scs.2021.102729.

K. Kim, “Impacts of COVID-19 on transportation: Summary and synthesis of interdisciplinary research,†Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, vol. 9. Elsevier Ltd, 01-Mar-2021, doi: 10.1016/j.trip.2021.100305.

A. Tirachini and O. Cats, “COVID-19 and public transportation: Current assessment, prospects, and research needs,†J. Public Transp., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–34, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.5038/2375-0901.22.1.1.

E. Mogaji, “Impact of COVID-19 on transportation in Lagos, Nigeria,†Transp. Res. Interdiscip. Perspect., vol. 6, p. 100154, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.trip.2020.100154.

R. Djalante et al., “Review and analysis of current responses to COVID-19 in Indonesia: Period of January to March 2020,†Prog. Disaster Sci., vol. 6, p. 100091, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.pdisas.2020.100091.

M. Z. Irawan, M. Rizki, T. B. Joewono, and P. F. Belgiawan, “Exploring the intention of out-of-home activities participation during new normal conditions in Indonesian cities,†Transp. Res. Interdiscip. Perspect., vol. 8, p. 100237, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.trip.2020.100237.

Z. Du et al., “Risk for transportation of coronavirus disease from Wuhan to other cities in China,†Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 26, no. 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), pp. 1049–1052, 01-May-2020, doi: 10.3201/eid2605.200146.

M. J. Beck, D. A. Hensher, and E. Wei, “Slowly coming out of COVID-19 restrictions in Australia: Implications for working from home and commuting trips by car and public transport,†J. Transp. Geogr., vol. 88, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102846.

P. Borkowski, M. Jażdżewska-Gutta, and A. Szmelter-Jarosz, “Lockdowned: Everyday mobility changes in response to COVID-19,†J. Transp. Geogr., vol. 90, p. 102906, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102906.

J. Huang, H. Wang, M. Fan, A. Zhuo, Y. Sun, and Y. Li, “Understanding the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Transportation-related Behaviors with Human Mobility Data,†in Proceedings of the ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 2020, pp. 3443–3450, doi: 10.1145/3394486.3412856.

N. Haug et al., “Ranking the effectiveness of worldwide COVID-19 government interventions,†Nat. Hum. Behav., vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1303–1312, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1038/s41562-020-01009-0.

J. Zhang, “Transport policymaking that accounts for COVID-19 and future public health threats: A PASS approach,†Transp. Policy, vol. 99, pp. 405–418, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2020.09.009.

R. Barouki et al., “The COVID-19 pandemic and global environmental change: Emerging research needs,†Environment International, vol. 146. Elsevier Ltd, p. 106272, 01-Jan-2021, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.106272.

J. De Vos, “The effect of COVID-19 and subsequent social distancing on travel behavior,†Transp. Res. Interdiscip. Perspect., vol. 5, p. 100121, May 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.trip.2020.100121.

M. J. Beck and D. A. Hensher, “Insights into the impact of COVID-19 on household travel and activities in Australia – The early days under restrictions,†Transp. Policy, vol. 96, pp. 76–93, Sep. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2020.07.001.

M. Abdullah, C. Dias, D. Muley, and M. Shahin, “Exploring the impacts of COVID-19 on travel behavior and mode preferences,†Transp. Res. Interdiscip. Perspect., vol. 8, p. 100255, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.trip.2020.100255.

Google, “Covid-19 Community Mobility Reports: Indonesia,†Google, 2021. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 18-Jan-2021].

J. Li, T. H. H. Nguyen, and J. A. Coca-Stefaniak, “Coronavirus impacts on post-pandemic planned travel behaviours,†Ann. Tour. Res., 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2020.102964.

Z. Li, S. Zhang, X. Liu, M. Kozak, and J. Wen, “Seeing the invisible hand: Underlying effects of COVID-19 on tourists’ behavioral patterns,†J. Destin. Mark. Manag., vol. 18, p. 100502, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2020.100502.

D. Zheng, Q. Luo, and B. W. Ritchie, “Afraid to travel after COVID-19? Self-protection, coping and resilience against pandemic ‘travel fear,’†Tour. Manag., vol. 83, p. 104261, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104261.

I. Ajzen, “The theory of planned behavior,†Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 179–211, Dec. 1991, doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T.

M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen, Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research Reading. MA: Addison-Wesley, 1975.

S. A. Kaye, I. Lewis, L. Buckley, and A. Rakotonirainy, “Assessing the feasibility of the theory of planned behaviour in predicting drivers’ intentions to operate conditional and full automated vehicles,†Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav., vol. 74, pp. 173–183, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2020.08.015.

M. N. Borhan, A. N. H. Ibrahim, and M. A. A. Miskeen, “Extending the theory of planned behaviour to predict the intention to take the new high-speed rail for intercity travel in Libya: Assessment of the influence of novelty seeking, trust and external influence,†Transp. Res. Part A Policy Pract., vol. 130, pp. 373–384, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.tra.2019.09.058.

J. Bordarie, “Predicting intentions to comply with speed limits using a ‘decision tree’ applied to an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour,†Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav., vol. 63, pp. 174–185, May 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2019.04.005.

I. L. Neto et al., “Psychological determinants of walking in a Brazilian sample: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior,†Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav., vol. 73, pp. 391–398, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2020.07.002.

P. Li, J. Shi, X. Liu, and H. Wang, “The Theory of Planned Behavior and Competitive Driving in China,†in Procedia Engineering, 2016, vol. 137, pp. 362–371, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.01.270.

W. Chase and F. Bown, General Statistics, 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 1999.

A. R. Maroko, D. Nash, and B. T. Pavilonis, “COVID-19 and Inequity: a Comparative Spatial Analysis of New York City and Chicago Hot Spots,†J. Urban Heal., vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 461–470, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1007/s11524-020-00468-0.

R. E. Caraka et al., “Impact of COVID-19 large scale restriction on environment and economy in Indonesia,†Glob. J. Environ. Sci. Manag., vol. 6, no. Special Issue, pp. 65–84, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.22034/GJESM.2019.06.SI.07.

J. Xiang et al., “Impacts of the COVID-19 responses on traffic-related air pollution in a Northwestern US city,†Sci. Total Environ., vol. 747, p. 141325, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141325.

S. Maneenop and S. Kotcharin, “The impacts of COVID-19 on the global airline industry: An event study approach,†J. Air Transp. Manag., vol. 89, p. 101920, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jairtraman.2020.101920.

N. Zenina and A. Borisov, “Regression Analysis for Transport Trip Generation Evaluation,†Inf. Technol. Manag. Sci., vol. 16, no. 1, Jan. 2014, doi: 10.2478/itms-2013-0014.

C. L. H. Tan, V. B. Y. Gan, F. Saleem, and M. A. A. Hassali, “Building intentions with the theory of planned behaviour: The mediating role of knowledge and expectations in implementing new pharmaceutical services in Malaysia,†Pharm. Pract. (Granada)., vol. 14, no. 4, Oct. 2016, doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2016.04.850.

M. Hankins, D. French, and R. Horne, “Statistical guidelines for studies of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behaviour,†Psychology and Health, vol. 15, no. 2. Routledge, pp. 151–161, 2000, doi: 10.1080/08870440008400297.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development