A Reference Model Based on Agile Values, Principles, and Aspects of Scrum, XP and Kanban to Foster the Adoption of Agility in Industry

César Pardo, Wilson Ortega, Omar S. Gómez


Currently, there is a broad range of software development agile approaches mainly based on the values and principles defined in the agile manifesto (AM). However, in many cases, their implementation is carried out informally and without being aligned with the values and principles stated. In practice, practitioners and consultants may lose sight of the AM recommendations, which could jeopardize the companies’ agility, therefore, applying an agile approach does not make a company agile. In this article, we present a reference model called AgilityRef, which allows practitioners to support the understanding and implementation of the values and principles of the agile manifesto in the software development processes of a company, this, through twenty-two aspects defined from relations established between principles and values described in the AM and processes elements described in Scrum, XP, and Kanban. The evaluation of AgilityRef was carried out through a focus group where its completeness, understandability, and suitability were evaluated. Our findings suggest good enough acceptance by professionals and consultants who evaluated the proposal. The proposed reference model seems to allow professionals and companies to improve the understanding and implementation in practice of the concept of agility in their companies’ software development processes, thus, minimizing the subjectivity and error of their process adoption, implementation, evaluation, and articulation with the principles and values of the agile manifesto.


Agile approaches; assessment of agility; eXtreme programming; Kanban; Scrum.

Full Text:



P. Patanakul and R. Rufo-McCarron, "Transitioning to agile software development: Lessons learned from a government-contracted program," The Journal of High Technology Management Research, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 181-192, Nov. 2018.

R. Vallon, B.J. da Silva Estácio, R. Prikladnicki and T. Grechenig, "Systematic literature review on agile practices in global software development," Information and Software Technology, vol. 96, pp. 161-180, Apr. 2018.

S. Ambler. (2018) IT Project Success Rates Survey Results. [Online]. Available: https://bit.ly/3fwfXcz.

Ö. Özcan-Top and O. Demirors, "Application of a software agility assessment model – AgilityMod in the field," Computer Standards & Interfaces, vol. 62, pp. 1-16, Feb. 2019.

C. Rupp. Scaling Scrum Across Modern Enterprises: Implement Scrum and Lean-Agile techniques across complex products, portfolios, and programs in large organizations. 1st ed., Packt Publishing, Aug. 2020.

W. A. Ortega, C. J. Pardo, and F. J. Pino, “Systematic mapping on the agility evaluation in software development organizations,†Journal ITECKNE, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 64–76, Jun. 2019.

VersionOne Inc. & Collabnet, (2020) 14th Annual State Of Agile Report. [Online]. Available: https://bit.ly/3hw5ek3.

F. McCaffery, P. S. Taylor, and G. Coleman, “Adept: A unified assessment method for small software companies,†Journal IEEE Software, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 24–31, Feb. 2007.

B. Shen and D. Ju, “On the measurement of agility in software process,†in Proc. ICSP'07, 2007, p. 25.

D. M. Shawky and A. F. Ali, “A practical measure for the agility of software development processes,†in Proc. ICCTD'10, 2010, p. 230.

TongShi, JianbinChen, and J. Zhu, “Study on assessment framework of software process in agile,†in Proc. ICIIS'10, 2010, p. 498.

A. Qumer and B. Henderson-Sellers, “An evaluation of the degree of agility in six agile methods and its applicability for method engineering,†Journal of Information and Software Technology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 280–295, Mar. 2008.

M. Taromirad and R. Ramsin, “CEFAM: Comprehensive evaluation framework for agile methodologies,†in Proc. IEEE Software Engineering Workshop, 2008, p. 195.

S. Soundararajan, J. D. Arthur, and O. Balci, “A Methodology for Assessing Agile Software Development Methods,†in Agile Conference, 2012, p. 51.

M. Florêncio, F. Sambinelli, and M. A. Francisco Borges, “ASA: Agile Software Development Self-assessment Method,†in Proc. gile Methods, 2018, p. 21.

V. Escobar-Sarmiento and M. Linares-Vásquez, “A model for measuring agility in small and medium software development enterprises,†in Proc. LACI'12, 2012, p. 1.

K. M. Poonacha and S. Bhattacharya, “Towards a framework for assessing agility,†in Proc. of the HICSS'12, 2012, p. 5329.

R. Wendler, “Development of the organizational agility maturity model,†in Proc. FedCSIS'14, 2014, p. 1197.

Scrum Manager. (2018) Scrum Level Model. [Online]. Available: https://bit.ly/3cUYs3Z.

F. Mafakheri, F. Nasiri, and M. Mousavi, “Project agility assessment: an integrated decision analysis approach,†Journal of Production Planning & Control, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 567–576, Dec. 2008.

O. E. Adali, O. O. Top, and O. Demirors, “Assessment of agility in software organizations with a web-based agility assessment tool,†in Proc. SEAA'17, 2017, p. 88.

M. Ikoma, M. Ooshima, T. Tanida, M. Oba, and S. Sakai, “Using a validation model to measure the agility of software development in a large software development organization,†in Proc. ICSE'09, 2009, p. 91.

Spotify Labs. (2014) Squad Health Check model - visualizing what to improve. [Online]. Available: https://bit.ly/3fjoIqm.

K. Beck et al.. (2001) Manifesto for Agile Software Development. [Online]. Available: https://agilemanifesto.org.

R. Barbour. Doing Focus Groups. 2nd ed. Sage Publicartions, 2018.

D.A. Putri, R. Razali, and Z. Mansor, "Team Formation for Agile Software Development: A Review," International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 555-561, 2020.

M. Alqudah, and R. Razali, "An Empirical Study of Scrumban Formation based on the Selection of Scrum and Kanban Practices," International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 2315-2322, 2018.

W.A. Ortega, C. Pardo, and F. Pino, "OntoAgile: an ontology for agile software development processes," Dyna, vol. 86, no. 209, pp.79-90, 2019.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.11.6.13667


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development