An Analysis of Some Learning Management Systems

Radoslava Kraleva, Mehrudin Sabani, Velin Kralev


The use of modern information and communication technology as a means of training pupils and students has become a popular trend. For this purpose, a special type of web-based content management systems, called Learning Management Systems (LMSs), has been used. Due to their wide implemented, lots of LMSs have been developed in recent years. All those platforms often provide similar features and users can hardly choose the most appropriate for them. There is a variety of methodologies for the quality evaluations of e-learning in the scientific literature. However, there are no good explanations and detailed studies of most of the modern LMS platforms. This article proposes an analysis of the usability and software functionality of the LMS frameworks. Based on the survey of the state-of-art science research, the criteria for analysis of the LMS platforms in this paper are summarized in three categories: Learning skills tools, Communication tools, and Productivity tools. The main goal is to present a wide-range comparative analysis of 36 electronic learning management systems. All of them support the use of multimedia elements, creating and editing the lectures, exercises and course assignments. The lack of communication support leads to using web forums and social networks out of the LMS. The contribution of this paper presents an enriched modern trend of the software methodologies of the web-based oriented learning management systems from the perspective of design and development.


e-learning; learning management system (LMS); LMS analysis and evaluation; human-computer interaction; software engineering; mobile learning

Full Text:



I. Han and W. S. Shin, “The use of a mobile learning management system and academic achievement of online students,†Computers & Education, vol. 102, pp. 79-89, 2016.

J. Capper, “E-learning growth and promise for the developing world,†TechKnowLogia, vol. 2(2), pp. 7-10, 2001.

S. R. Harandi,†Effects of e-learning on Students’ Motivation,†Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 181, pp. 423-430, 2015.

M. Huda, A. Maseleno, K. S. M. Teh, A. G. Don, B. Basiron, K. A., Jasmi, B. Basiron, and R. Ahmad, “Understanding Modern Learning Environment (MLE) in Big Data Era,†International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, vol. 13(05), pp. 71-85, 2018.

T. Q. Le and T. T. A. Do, “Active Teaching Techniques for Engineering Students to Ensure the Learning Outcomes of Training Programs by CDIO Approach,†International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 9(1), pp. 266-273, 2019.

Å. Grönlund and Y. M. Islam, “A mobile e-learning environment for developing countries: The Bangladesh virtual interactive classroom,†Information Technology for Development, vol. 16(4), pp. 244-259, 2010.

R. Kraleva, V. Kralev and D. Kostadinova, “A Methodology for the Analysis of Block-Based Programming Languages Appropriate for Children,†Journal of Computing Science and Engineering, vol. 13(1), pp. 1-10, 2019

T. Y. Wang and C. H. Wang, “E-Learning Platform of STEAM Aesthetic Course Materials Based on User Experience,†In Proc. of the 1st International Cognitive Cities Conference (IC3), IEEE, pp. 123-128, August 2018.

P. Zaharias and C. Pappas, “Quality management of learning management systems: A user experience perspective,†Current Issues in Emerging eLearning, vol. 3(1), p. 5, 2016.

R. Kraleva, “Designing an Interface for a Mobile Application Based on Children's Opinion,†International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 11(1), pp. 53-70, 2017.

V. Chang and C. Guetl, “E-learning ecosystem (eles)-a holistic approach for the development of more effective learning environment for small-and-medium sized enterprises (smes),†In Proc. of the Inaugural IEEE-IES Digital EcoSystems and Technologies Conference, pp. 420-425, February 2007.

T. Sheeba and R. Krishnan, “Automatic Detection of Students Learning Style in Learning Management System,†In Proc. of the Smart Technologies and Innovation for a Sustainable Future, Springer, pp. 45-53, 2019.

J. W. Lin and H. C. K. Lin, “User acceptance in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment with social network awareness (SNA) support,†Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 35(1), pp. 100-115, 2019.

V. Narayan, J. Herrington, and T. Cochrane, “Design principles for heutagogical learning: Implementing student-determined learning with mobile and social media tools,†Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 35(3), pp. 86-101, 2019.

I. Valova and M. Marinov, “Facebook as a Tool Aiding University Education-Whether it is Possible and Useful,†TEM Journal, vol. 8(2), pp. 670-676, 2019.

U. D. Ehlers, “Quality in e-learning from a learner's perspective,†European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning, vol. 7(1), 2004.

S. S. Liaw, “Investigating students’ perceived satisfaction, behavioral intention, and effectiveness of e-learning: A case study of the Blackboard system,†Computers & education, vol. 51(2), pp. 864-873, 2008.

Y. C. Chen, R. H. Hwang, and C. Y. Wang, “Development and evaluation of a Web 2.0 annotation system as a learning tool in an e-learning environment,†Computers & Education, vol. 58(4), pp. 1094-1105, 2012.

K. Madhavi, J. N. Murthy, N. V. Raju, G. S. Kumar, J. Praveen, and K. V. S. Raju, “Facilitating and Adapting Learning Management System: A Novel Experimental Study,†In Proc. of International Conference on Digital Pedagogies (ICDP), 2019.

G. Durak and S. Çankaya, “Seamless Learning: A Scoping Systematic Review Study,†Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, vol. 5(4), pp. 225-234, 2018

S. K. Basak, M. Wotto and P. Bélanger, â€E-learning, M-learning and D-learning: Conceptual definition and comparative analysis,†E-Learning and Digital Media, vol. 15(4), pp. 191-216, 2018.

J. Dutton, M. Dutton, and J. Perry, “How do online students differ from lecture students,†Journal of asynchronous learning networks, vol. 6(1), pp. 1-20, 2012.

T. Anderson (Ed.), “The theory and practice of online learning,†Athabasca University Press, 2008.

N. N. M. Kasim and F. Khalid, “Choosing the right learning management system (LMS) for the higher education institution context: a systematic review,†International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, vol. 11 (06), pp. 55-61, 2016.

A. Aldiab, H. Chowdhury, A. Kootsookos, F. Alam and H. Allhibi, “Utilization of Learning Management Systems (LMSs) in higher education system: A case review for Saudi Arabia,†Energy Procedia, vol. 160, pp. 731-737, 2019.

P. Poulova, I. Simonova and M. Manenova, “Which one, or another? Comparative analysis of selected LMS,†Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 186, pp. 1302-1308, 2015.

W. T. Nakamura, L. C. Marques, L. Rivero, E. H. de Oliveira, and T. Conte, “Are scale-based techniques enough for learners to convey their UX when using a Learning Management System?,†Brazilian Journal of Computers in Education, vol. 27(01), pp. 104-131, 2019.

A. Janson, M. Söllner, and J. M. Leimeister, “Individual appropriation of learning management systems—antecedents and consequences,†AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 9(3), pp. 173-201, 2017.

M. Ouadoud, M. Y. Chkouri, and A. Nejjari, “Learning management system and the underlying learning theories: towards a new modeling of an LMS,†International Journal of Information Science and Technology, vol. 2(1), pp. 25-33, 2018.

R. Kraleva, “ChilDiBu–A mobile application for Bulgarian children with special educational needs,†International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 7(6), pp. 2085-2091, 2017.

R. Kraleva and V. Kralev, “An Evaluation of The Mobile Apps for Children with Special Education Needs Based on The Utility Function Metrics,†International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 8(6), pp. 2269-2277, 2018.

F. B. García and A. H. Jorge, “Evaluating e-learning platforms through SCORM specifications,†In Proc. IADIS Virtual Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (MCCSIS 2006), IADIS, May 2006.

J. Yu and H. Guo, “Design and development of the interactive courseware based on SCORM standard,†In Proc. of the World Conference on Management Science and Human Social Development (MSHSD 2017), Atlantis Press, December 2017.

J. H. Liu, B. S. Huang, and M. Chao, “The design of learning object authoring tool based on SCORM,†In Proc. of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05), IEEE, pp. 778-782, July 2005.

Y. Wei, K. Rongrong, and X. Ruonan, X. Design and Development of SCORM-Based Mobile Learning System,†In Proc. 8th International Conference on Information Technology in Medicine and Education (ITME), IEEE, pp. 482-485, December 2016.

Å. Grönlund and Y. M. Islam, “A mobile e-learning environment for developing countries: The Bangladesh virtual interactive classroom,†Information Technology for Development, vol. 16(4), pp. 244-259, 2010.

P. Vate-U-Lan and P. Masouras, “Thriving social network for communication on eLearning: exploring gender differences in attitudes,†In Proc. of the First International Conference on Data Science, E-learning and Information Systems, ACM, paper 14, October 2018.

I. Kuznetcova, M. Glassman, T. J. Lin, “Multi-user virtual environments as a pathway to distributed social networks in the classroom,†Computers & Education, vol. 130, pp. 26-39, 2019

Rustici Software LLC (2019) SCORM solved and explained. [Online]. Available:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development