Effect of Macronutrient Needs on Digestibility and Average Daily Gain of Sheep (Ovisaries var. Padjadjaran, Family Bovidae)

Rahmat Hidayat, Kurnia Asumatrani Kamil, Lilis Suryaningsih, Gemilang Lara Utama, Roostita Lobo Balia


Feeding management is a very important factor that makes sure fulfil quality and quantity for livestock nutrient sufficiency that affects the success rate in livestock farming. The excellent macro nutrient needs determination is an absolute thing to achieve the optimal growth which represented by digestibility and average daily gain. Feed formulation that considering the material selection, availability, and the price of feed materials could gave sustainable livestock feed management. The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of macronutrients needs on digestibility and average daily gain of sheep. Twenty Padjadjaran sheep (Ovisaries var. Padjadjaran, Family Bovidae), which resulted from crossbreeding between South-African Capstaad, Merino, and local, were chosen as tested animals. These white sheep were placed separately in individual metabolism cages. All animals were 8-10 months of age and their body weights ranged between 15-33 kg. The animals were divided into 5 groups and each group was treated with different dietary feeds (4 times replication) that contained dry material, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, and nitrogen-free extract (NFE). The parameters measured were dry matter intake (DMI), dry matter digestibility (DMD), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and average daily gain (ADG). The treatments showed no significant effect on DMI, DMD, and OMD, whereas an increase of ADG (113.33 – 169.17 g/animal/day) was observed on all animals. One of R2-treated animal showed an increase of 276.67 g/day.


animal nutrition; animal feed; dry matter intake; dry matter digestibility; organic matter digestibility.

Full Text:



S. C. L. Candyrine et al., “Oil supplementation improved growth and diet digestibility in goats and sheep fed fattening diet,†Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 533–540, 2018.

L. Tekliye, Y. Mekuriaw, B. Asmare, and F. Mehret, “Nutrient intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Farta sheep fed urea-treated rice straw supplemented with graded levels of dried Sesbania sesban leaves,†Agric & Food Secur, vol. 7, no. 77, pp. 1–10, Oct. 2018.

H. Ji-Ae et al., “Effect of citron by-product fermented with beneficial bacteria as a functional feed additive for Korean native steers,†Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., vol. 8, no. 16, p. 171301721, 2014.

T. Hartinger, N. Gresner, and K.-H. Südekum, “Effect of Wilting Intensity, Dry Matter Content and Sugar Addition on Nitrogen Fractions in Lucerne Silages,†Agriculture, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 11, Jan. 2019.

B. S. Obeidat et al., “The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fluid pH in Awassi female lambs,†Vet World, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1015–1020, Jul. 2018.

T. Garcia Diaz et al., “Use of live yeast and mannan-oligosaccharides in grain-based diets for cattle: Ruminal parameters, nutrient digestibility, and inflammatory response,†PLoS One, vol. 13, no. 11, Nov. 2018.

M. M. Abd El-Tawab, I. M. I. Youssef, H. A. Bakr, G. C. Fthenakis, and N. D. Giadinis, “Role of probiotics in nutrition and health of small ruminants,†Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 893–906, Dec. 2016.

O. Ruiz Barrera, J. Salinas-Chavira, and Y. Castillo Castillo, “Yeasts as Dietary Additives to Manipulate Ruminal Fermentation: Effect on Nutrient Utilization and Productive Performance of Ruminants,†in Yeasts in Biotechnology, IntechOpen, 2019.

F. Kafilzadeh, S. Payandeh, P. Gómez-Cortés, D. Ghadimi, A. Schiavone, and A. L. M. Marín, “Effects of probiotic supplementation on milk production, blood metabolite profile and enzyme activities of ewes during lactation,†Italian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 134–139, Jan. 2019.

S. Adjei-Fremah, K. Ekwemalor, M. Worku, and S. Ibrahim, “Probiotics and Ruminant Health,†in Probiotics - Current Knowledge and Future Prospects, S. Enany, Ed. InTech, 2018.

M. A. Arowolo and J. He, “Use of probiotics and botanical extracts to improve ruminant production in the tropics: A review,†Animal Nutrition, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 241–249, Sep. 2018.

H. M. J. Udo and I. G. S. Budisatria, “Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders,†Trop Anim Health Prod, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1411–1418, Oct. 2011.

P. Edianingsih and D. Amalia, “Local sheep body weight selection response on various selection intensity in Purwakarta, West Java, Indonesia,†Scientific Papers Series Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 115–122, 2018.

S. B. K. Prajoga, L. Andriani, and H. Subhandiana, “Identification of Pit-1 Gen Using PCR-RFLP of Padjadjaran Sheep and Evaluate of Growth Rate,†IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 119, p. 012030, Feb. 2018.

S. B. K. Prajoga, T. D. Lestari, S. Darodjah, and R. Muchtar, “Increased of Lamb Production on Padjadjaran Sheep through the Application of Syncronization Estrus and Artificial Insemination Innovation,†Proceeding of the 14th International Conference on Quality in Research QIR, pp. 1059–1064, Aug. 2015.

D. R. D. S. P. Y. Paryati, “The Effect of DGAT1 Gene Diversity on Padjadjaran Sheep to Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels†JANHUS: Journal of Animal Husbandry Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–7, Mar. 2018.

T. B. A. Kurnani, L. Adriani, U. Hidayat, E. Hernawan, and S. B. K. Prajoga, “Effects of Dietary Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Waste on Crude Protein Digestibility and Body Weight of Padjadjaran Rams,†Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 21–24, 2018.

L. Kearl, “Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants in Developing Countries,†Dissertation, Utah State University, Utah, 1982.

T. Tayengwa and C. Mapiye, “Citrus and Winery Wastes: Promising Dietary Supplements for Sustainable Ruminant Animal Nutrition, Health, Production, and Meat Quality,†Sustainability, vol. 10, no. 10, p. 3718, Oct. 2018.

R. W. S. Ningrat, M. Zain, - Erpomen, E. M. Putri, and M. Makmur, “Effects of Leucaena leucocephala Supplementation to Total Mixed Ration Based on Ammoniated Rice Straw Onfiber Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics in vitro,†International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 916–921, 2019.

I. D. Nyoman Sudita, I. G. Mahardika, I. W. Suarna, and I. B. G. Partama, “Analysis of Feed for Digestibility Bali Cow in Group ‘Simantri’ Program in Bali on Different Topographic,†International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 495–500, 2015.

A. Santra and S. A. Karim, “Rumen Manipulation to Improve Animal Productivity,†Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 748–763, Jan. 2003.

A. Z. M. Salem et al., “Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and ruminal fermentation activities in sheep fed Atriplex halimus ensiled with three developed enzyme cocktails,†Czech Journal of Animal Science, vol. 60, no. No. 4, pp. 185–194, Jul. 2016.

B. H. Schneider and W. P. Flatt, The evaluation of feeds through digestibility experiments. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press., 1975.

T. Ma, F. Wan, D. Yang, K. Deng, K. Yang, and Q. Diao, “Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and slaughter traits of male fattening lambs under different feeding standards,†Animal Nutrition, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 74–79, Mar. 2019.

V. C. Cruz, A. C. Pezzato, D. F. Pinheiro, J. C. Gonçalves, and J. R. Sartori, “Effect of free-choice feeding on the performance and ileal digestibility of nutrients in broilers,†Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 143–150, Sep. 2005.

I. K. O. Cann, Y. Kobayashi, M. Wakita, and S. Hoshino, “Digestion properties of ammoniated rice straw in the rumen and lower tract of sheep,†Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 55–68, Oct. 1991.

L.P. Broudiscou, A. Agbagla-Dohnani, Y. Papon, A. Cornu, E. Grenet, and A. Broudiscou, “Quantitative effects of alfalfa extract supply on rice straw degradation, fermentation and biomass synthesis by rumen microorganisms in vitro,†Anim. Res., vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 429–440, Nov. 2001.

Y. A. Beigh, A. M. Ganai, and H. A. Ahmad, “Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review,†Vet World, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 424–437, Apr. 2017.

X. Guo, L. Cheng, J. Liu, S. Zhang, X. Sun, and O. Al-Marashdeh, “Effects of Licorice Extract Supplementation on Feed Intake, Digestion, Rumen Function, Blood Indices and Live Weight Gain of Karakul Sheep,†Animals, vol. 9, no. 5, p. 279, May 2019.

P. Homolka, M. Koukolová, and V. Koukolová, “Organic matter and crude protein digestibility predicted from nitrogen and fibre fractionation of festulolium hybrids,†Czech Journal of Animal Science, vol. 63, no. No. 7, pp. 272–279, Jun. 2018.

X. Han et al., “Effects of Dietary Stevioside Supplementation on Feed Intake, Digestion, Ruminal Fermentation, and Blood Metabolites of Goats,†Animals (Basel), vol. 9, no. 2, Jan. 2019.

L. M. de A. Rufino et al., “Intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization in cattle fed tropical forage and supplemented with protein in the rumen, abomasum, or both,†J Anim Sci Biotechnol, vol. 7, Feb. 2016.

M. Zamsari, S. Sunarso, and S. Sutrisno, “Pemanfaatan tanin alami dalam memproteksi protein bungkil kelapa ditinjau dari fermentabilitas protein secara in vitro,†Animal Agriculture Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 405–416, 2012.

A. Henke et al., “Effect of dietary Quebracho tannin extract on feed intake, digestibility, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and milk production in dairy cows,†Arch Anim Nutr, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 37–53, Feb. 2017.

E. Díaz-de-Cerio, V. Verardo, A. M. Gómez-Caravaca, A. Fernández-Gutiérrez, and A. Segura-Carretero, “Health Effects of Psidium guajava L. Leaves: An Overview of the Last Decade,†Int J Mol Sci, vol. 18, no. 4, Apr. 2017.

I. Jenny, S. Surono, and M. Christiyanto, “Produksi amonia, undegraded protein dan protein total secara in vitro bungkil biji kapuk yang diproteksi dengan tanin alami,†Animal Agriculture Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 277–284, 2012.

S. Nuraliah, A. Purnomoadi, and L. K. Nuswantara, “Volatile fatty acid concentration and blood glucose on thin-tailed sheep given with tanine-protected soybean meal†Jurnal Veteriner, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 448–456, Oct. 2015.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.9.5.9292


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development