Effect of Rare Earth on M7C3 Eutectic Carbide in 13% Chromium Alloy Cast Iron

Hoang Thi Ngoc Quyen, Vu Anh Tuan, Tran Phap Dong, Vu Viet Quyen, Nguyen Duong Nam


The crystallization process of hypoeutectic white cast iron consists of the first secreted austenite branch after the reaction of the austenite -carbide crystal is formed, and the phase crystal fills in the middle of the austenite branches. If the austenite branches are small and smooth, the crystals carbide are fine. The cast iron with 13% chromium which has 3 – 3.2% carbon, have the carbide crystalline as M7C3. The elements in rare earth have a strong affinity for oxygen and sulfur to produce rare earth oxides. These rare earth oxides can create heterogeneous germ center for austenite phases and smooth down these phases. The effect of rare earth on the M7C3 and crystals of 13% chrome white iron has been elucidated. Along with the increase of rare earth content, the microstructure of M7C3 with fine finely graded, more uniformly distributed, dispersed throughout the sample surface. When the carbide is fine and dispersion, will contribute to improving the properties of cast iron especially the impact strength as well as the abrasion resistance of the alloy. The research results show that in the presence of rare earth, rare earth elements created with oxygen and form La2O3 and Ce2O3 as the nucleation for the solidification process and create the small fineness of phases. The orientation of the crystal structure of these oxides is similar to the crystal structure orientation of Fe-γ phase. Finding and proving the oxides of rare earth has crystal structure with phase γ which will be small smooth exogenous minds that the microstructure has a smooth, small size.


Crystallization; carbide; austenite; nucleation; solidification

Full Text:



X. D. Pham, A. T. Hoang, and D. N. Nguyen, “A Study on the Effect of the Change of Tempering Temperature on the Microstructure Transformation of Cu-Ni-Sn Alloy,” Int. J. Mech. Mechatronics Eng., vol. 18, no. 04, pp. 27–34, 2018.

X. D. Pham, A. T. Hoang, D. N. Nguyen, and V. V Le, “Effect of Factors on the Hydrogen Composition in the Carburizing Process,” Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res., vol. 12, no. 19, pp. 8238–8244, 2017.

A. T. Hoang, V. V. Le, D. N. Nguyen, and A. X. Nguyen, “A study of the changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of multi-pass welding between 316 stainless steel and low carbon steel,” J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 23–35, 2018.

T. N. Le, M. K. Pham, A. T. Hoang, and D. N. Nguyen, “Microstructures and elements distribution in the transition zone of carbon steel and stainless steel welds,” J. Mech. Eng. Res. Dev., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 27–31, 2018.

D. N. N. Anh Tuan Hoang, Thi Thanh Van Tran, Van Bach Nguyen, “Effect of heat treatment process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the spray coating Ni-Cr on CT38 steel,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, 2019.

B. L. Bramfitt, “Planar lattice disregistry theory and its application on heterogistry nuclei of metal,” Met. Trans, vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 1987–1995, 1970.

Y. Jian et al., “Effect of RE oxide on growth dynamics of primary austenite grain in hardfacing layer of medium-high carbon steel,” J. Rare Earths, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 814–819, 2012.

S. G. Liu et al., “Application of quenching–partitioning–tempering process and modification to a newly designed ultrahigh carbon steel,” Mater. Des. vol. 56, pp. 37–43, 2014.

M. Filipovic and E. Romhanji, “Strain hardening of austenite in Fe–Cr–C–V alloys under the repeated impact,” Wear, vol. 270, no. 11–12, pp. 800–805, 2011.

M. K. Pham, D. N. Nguyen, and A. T. Hoang, “Influence of Vanadium Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Manganese Steel,” Int. J. Mech. Mechatronics Eng., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 141–147, 2018.

A. Bedolla-Jacuinde, S. L. Aguilar, and B. Hernandez, “Eutectic modification in a low-chromium white cast iron by a mixture of titanium, rare earth, and bismuth: I. Effect on microstructure,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform. vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 149–157, 2005.

J. Wang et al., “Influence of secondary carbides precipitation and transformation on hardening behavior of a 15 Cr–1 Mo–1.5 V white iron,” Mater. Charact., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 234–240, 2005.

P. P. Hellstén, J. M. Salminen, K. S. Jørgensen, and T. H. Nystén, “Use of potassium formate in road winter deicing can reduce groundwater deterioration,” Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 39, no. 13, pp. 5095–5100, 2005.

X. Wu, J. Xing, H. Fu, and X. Zhi, “Effect of titanium on the morphology of primary M7C3 carbides in hypereutectic high chromium white iron,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 457, no. 1–2, pp. 180–185, 2007.

A. Bedolla-Jacuinde, R. Correa, J. G. Quezada, and C. Maldonado, “Effect of titanium on the as-cast microstructure of a 16% chromium white iron,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 398, no. 1–2, pp. 297–308, 2005.

A. Bedolla-Jacuinde, B. Hernández, and L. Béjar-Gómez, “SEM study on the M7C3 carbide nucleation during eutectic solidification of high-chromium white irons,” Zeitschrift für Met., vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 1380–1385, 2005.

M. Filipovic, Z. Kamberovic, and M. Korac, “Solidification of high chromium white cast iron alloyed with vanadium,” Mater. Trans., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 386–390, 2011.

X. H. Tang, R. Chung, D. Y. Li, B. Hinckley, and K. Dolman, “Variations in microstructure of high chromium cast irons and resultant changes in resistance to wear, corrosion and corrosive wear,” Wear, vol. 267, no. 1–4, pp. 116–121, 2009.

Z. Jiyang, “Colour metallography of cast iron,” China foundry, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 57–69, 2009.

A. B. Jacuinde and W. M. Rainforth, “The wear behaviour of high-chromium white cast irons as a function of silicon and Mischmetal content,” Wear, vol. 250, no. 1–12, pp. 449–461, 2001.

Y. Matsubara, K. Ogi, and K. Matsuda, “Eutectic Solidification of High-Chromium Cast Iron--Eutectic Structures and Their Quantitative Analysis,” Am. Foundrymen’s Soc. Trans., vol. 89, pp. 183–196, 1981.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.9.2.8249


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development