Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Agricultural Drought in Upper Progo Watershed Based on Remote Sensing and Land Physical Characteristics
Agricultural drought is alarmed by meteorological drought characterized by lower year-to-year rainfall. Under long period and continuous water deficits, plants may demonstrate stress symptoms and wilt or die. Furthermore, agricultural drought leads to crop failures and threaten the food security of an area. Progo Hulu sub-watershed is a major agricultural area in Temanggung Regency. Spatial-temporal pattern-based information about agricultural drought can be a basis for decision making in drought mitigation. This study aims to analyze spatial and temporal distribution patterns of drought, analyze the physical characteristics of land and their influence on drought pattern, and establish a prediction model of drought distribution patterns based on four physical characteristics of the land. Landsat 8 imagery is used to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of agricultural drought in Upper Progo watershed using an improved Temperature vegetation Dryness Index (iTVDI). Slope, land use, landform, and soil texture are the physical characteristics of land as the variables to determine the most influential factor of drought pattern. They are analyzed using multiple regression analysis techniques. Pixel samples are obtained through purposive sampling method based on land units. The results reveal that the spatial-temporal distribution of agricultural drought occurs rapidly on the slopes and foothills of Sumbing and Sindoro. These areas have the highest average value of the iTVDI index. Agricultural drought extends gradually in line with the number of days without rainfall. Landform is a physical characteristic that most influences the distribution of agricultural drought. The established model by utilizing four variables of physical characteristics generates an average value which almost similar to the iTVDI value produced by remote sensing data. The model can be useful to estimate drought distribution based on the number of days without rainfall.
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