Removal of Cu2+ Ions Using Activated Carbon from Palm Kernel Shell Waste by Liquid Smoke Activation

Muhammad Faisal, - Abubakar, Sandi Putra Kelana, Dodi Eko Nanda, Hiroyuki Daimon


Copper (Cu2+) ions has been recognized as hazardous heavy metal and having negative effects on human health, animal, plants, and environment. Therefore, the removal of Cu2+ from contaminated water to an acceptable level is necessary. In this research,  activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell waste products has been used for the removal of Cu2+ ions from aqueous solutions. The oil palm shells were pyrolyzed at 380 °C, producing charcoal and liquid smoke. The carbon material was modified to nano size and activated by liquid smoke to generate activated carbon with a well developed porous structure and distribution porosity. The activated carbon was then characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All experiments were conducted in a batch process with initial metal concentrations in the range 30–150 ppm, contact times in the range 30–150 min and at room temperature. The best conditions for high removal efficiency of Cu2+ was investigated. The adsorption isotherm of the Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to analyze the data obtained. The kinetic of first and second-order models were also studied. The highest removal efficiency of 97.5% was obtained at a contact time of 60 min, an initial Cu2+ concentration of 30 ppm, and an agitation speed of 200 rpm. The Freundlich isotherm model was well fitted (R2=0.937) and indicated pseudo-first-order chemisorption. Based on the results, the activated carbon with liquid smoke activation would be an alternative adsorbent in removing Cu2+ from industrial wastewater.


adsorption; activated carbon; nanoparticles; liquid smoke; Cu2+ removal.

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