Nutritional Status of Elderly in Urban and Rural North Sumatera, Indonesia

Siti Zahara Nasution, Muhammad Ridha Haykal Amal, Reni Asmara Ariga, Cholina Trisa Siregar, Widya Darayani Purba


One measure of the progress of a nation is the expectancy of inhabitants, especially for the elderly. One of the primary efforts made for the elderly to achieve the quality of life and to remain reasonable is by eating nutritious and diverse foods as well as maintaining nutritional status in a balance condition. The fulfillment of nutritional needs can help in the process of adapting or adjusting to the changes they experienced and can maintain the continuity of body cell changes so that they can prolong life. Generally, support and attention from family members are needed by the elderly, especially in their food consumption. This research applied a qualitative method with a cross-sectional design. This research was conducted in Titi Kuning Village (representing urban areas) and in Ranto Baek Village (representing rural areas). Sampling was carried out using inclusion criteria with the criteria, not dementia, not lying sick, and being able to stretch both hands. Total sampling used in this study, 108 people from the village of Ranto Baek, and 438 people from Titi Kuning village became the sample of this research. As a result of the frequency distribution of urban and rural elder's knowledge about nutritional needs, most urban participants have good knowledge; totally, 251 participants (57.3%) and rural participants have sufficient knowledge, a total of 44 participants (40.7%). The results of the frequency distribution of the urban and rural elderly on eating patterns indicated that both urban and rural participants have a good eating pattern total 282 (64.4%) for urban participants and 85 (77%) for rural participants. In addition, frequency distribution results of the nutritional status of urban and rural elders show that many urban participants have good nutritional status, i.e., 213 (48.6%) and rural participants have heavy weight-loss nutritional status as many as 61 participants (58%). This study found that the knowledge, eating pattern, and nutritional status of participants in the city all were good, whereas the knowledge of the participants in the village was sufficient; the nutritional status was a heavyweight loss, yet the eating pattern was good. The difference between rural and urban communities is due to the influence of participants' insight, the neighborhood, the mass media, and the information available. The results of this study can be a reference for the initial material to conduct further research related to the regulation of balanced nutrition for the elderly.


nutritional status; elderly; rural communities; urban and rural.

Full Text:



HS, Ibrahim. (2012). Hubungan Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kebutuhan Gizi Dengan Status Gizi Lanjut Usia Di UPTD Rumoh Seujahtera Geunaseh Sayang Banda Aceh. Journal Idea Nursing. Vol. III No. [2]. Maria D.G.H., Mulders.O, Corneille. O, Klein. (2018). Label reading, numeracy, and food & nutrition involvement.Appetite. Volume 128, 1 September 2018, Pages 214-22.

Teresa. K., Ewa. M., Ewa. Z., Małgorzata. M., Wierzgoń., Edyta. F(2017). Assessment of Nutritional Status in the Elderly.Nutrition and Functional Foods for Healthy Aging 2017,

Olfa, B.F., Amrouche. C., Rym BenOthman, Hamdi. S., Seila. I., LahmerC., WafaImen. S., Haifa. S., Feten. M., Henda. J. (2017). Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Alexandria Journal of Medicine. Volume 53, Issue 2, June 2017, Pages 187-192.

Beth. K (2018). Nutrition Counseling for Patients with Osteoporosis: A Personal Approach. Journal of Clinical Densitometry. Volume 16, Issue 4, October–December 2013, Pages 426-43.

Yi-ChouHou, Chia-ChaoWu, Min-TserLiao, Jia-FwuShyu, Chi-FengHung, Tzung-HaiYen, Chien-LinLu, Kuo-ChengLu (2018). Role of nutritional vitamin D in osteoporosis treatment. Clinica Chimica Acta. Volume 484, September 2018, Pages 179-191.

O'Brien. K.O. (2018). Osteoporosis: Nutritional Factors. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition). 2013, Pages 418-424.

Rizky, Ali A. (2009). Nutritional Challenges in The Elderly with Diabetes. International Journal of Diabetes Mellitus. Volume 1. Issue 1. April, Pages 26-31.

Matsumura, Takuro, Yuji Mitani, Yutaro Oki, Yukari Fujimoto, Mineko Ohira MD, Hiromi Kaneko, Tsunehiro Kawashima, Masato Nishio, Akira Ishikawa. (2015). Comparison of Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index Scores on Physical Performance Among Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care. Volume 44, Issue 6, November- December. Pages 534-538.

Nursilmi, Clara M. Kusharto, Cecilia Meti dwiriani. (2017). Hubungan Status Gizi Dan Kesehatan Dengan Kualitas Hidup Lansia Di Dua Lokasi Berbeda. Journal MKMI. Vol. 13 No. 4, December.

Berner, Yitshal N. (2018). Nutrition in The Elderly. Journal Reference Module in Food Science.

Ongan, Dilek and Neslisah Rakicioglu. (2015). Nutritional Status and Dietary Intake Of Institutionalized Elderly In Turkey. Journal of Archives Of Gerontology And Geriatrics. Volume 61, Issue @. September-October. Pages 271-276.

Dalimunthe, Rizki Hasanah. (2017). Gambaran Perilaku Keluarga Dalam Penyediaan Makanan Dan Status Gizi Lansia Di Desa Menggala Sempurna Kecamatan Tanah Putih Kabupaten Rokan Hilir. Universitas Sumatera Utara: Medan.

Iranagh, Jamileh Amirzadeh., Seyedeh Ameneh Motalebi, Fatemeh Mohammadi. (2018). A Theoretically Based Behavioral Nutrition Intervention for Elderly Women. International Journal Of Gerontology. Volume 12, Issue 2, June. Pages 127-132.

Siti Zahara Nasution (2015). Family Health Care Mandailing Community (Study of Nutritional Status Among Pregnant Mother) International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 5 (2015) No. 6, pages: 506-509.

Rohmawati, Ninna, Ahmad Husein Asdie, dan Susetyowati. (2015). Tingkat Kecemasan, Asupan makanan, Dan Status Gizi Pada Lansia Di Yogyakarta. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia. Vol. 12 No. 02. Oktober (62-71).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development