Sense of Presence and Learning Satisfaction among Students of Different Age Groups in a 3-D Virtual World

Mohd Hishamuddin Abdul Rahman, Danakorn Nincarean Eh Phon, Nur Ichsan Utama, Noraffandy Yahaya, Noor Dayana Abd Halim, Shahreen Kasim


Virtual worlds are growing in popularity very quickly. This growing popularity of 3-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds has drawn attention from educationists. Today, 3-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds are exploited for online and virtual learning. Unlike the common online learning platforms, a virtual world environment closely resembles a 3-D video games environment. Thus the age of students might affect their sense of presence, interaction, and satisfaction in the said environment. Hence this study was conducted to investigate whether there are differences between students of different age groups on their sense of presence (place presence, social presence, and co-presence) and their learning satisfaction. The study was carried out for six weeks and involved 33 part-time diploma students with the use of interview and questionnaires as instruments. In this study, the researcher developed our own 3-D virtual world, known as ViEW, by using the Open Wonderland open source virtual world program. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney U analysis was applied to explore the differences between young and senior participants in terms of their sense of place presence, social presence, co-presence, and learning satisfaction. The results indicated significant differences between young and senior students in terms of place presence, co-presence, and learning satisfaction, but no differences were identified for social presence. These results might be in regard with the means of conducted the learning, which were in the forms of cooperative and synchronous learning by utilizing audio communication most of the time. Several recommendations for future research related to the study were also provided.


virtual world, multi-user virtual environment, presence, satisfaction

Full Text:



S.C. Baker, R.K. Wentz, and M.M. Woods, “Using virtual worlds in education: Second Life as an educational tool,†Teaching of Psychology, vol 36, pp. 59-64, 2009.

A. Sutcliffe and A. Alrayes, “Investigating user experience in Second Life for collaborative learning,†International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol 70, pp. 1-18, 2012.

S. Bronack, R. Riedl, and J. Tashner, “Learning in the zone: A social constructivist framework for distance education in a 3-dimensional virtual worldâ€, Interactive Learning Environments, vol 14, pp. 219-232, 2006.

M.N.K. Boulos, A.D. Taylor, and A. Breton, “A synchronous communication experiment within an online distance learning program: A case study,†Telemedicine Journal & e-Health, vol 11, pp. 583-593, 2005.

M.H.A. Rahman, N. Yahaya, and N.D.A. Halim, “Virtual world for collaborative learning: A review,†in Teaching and Learning in Computing and Engineering (LaTiCE), 2014 International Conference on, pp. 52-57. IEEE, 2014.

S. Akayoglu, & G. Seferoglu, “Social Presence Functions in Task-Based Language Activities in a Virtual Classroom in Second Life.†In Multiculturalism and Technology-Enhanced Language Learning, 2017, (pp. 181-198). IGI Global.

A. I., Mørch, V. Caruso, M. D. Hartley & B. L Ludlow, B. L. “Creating Contexts for Collaborative Learning in a 3D Virtual World for Distance Educationâ€. In Integrating Multi-User Virtual Environments in Modern Classrooms, 2018, (pp. 137-164). IGI Global.

I. Vrellis, N. Avouris, & T. A. Mikropoulos, “Learning outcome, presence and satisfaction from a science activity in Second Life.†Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(1), 2016.

M.H.A. Rahman, N. Yahaya, and N.D.A. Halim, “Place, social and co-presence: Do they differ based on students’ gaming experiences,†Advanced Science Letters, 21(7), pp. 2230-2234, 2015.

T. Ngo-Ye, “Computer literacy challenges for adult returning students, lost in a different generation of computer?â€, Computer, vol 5, pp. 1-6, 2014.

M. Slater, M. Usoh, and Y. Chrysanthou, “The influence of dynamic shadows on a presence in immersive virtual environments,†in Virtual Environments’ 95, Springer Vienna, 1995, pp. 8-21.

B.G. Witmer and M.J. Singer, “Measuring presence in virtual environments: A presence questionnaireâ€, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol 7, pp. 225-240, 1998.

S.T. Bulu, “Place presence, social presence, co-presence, and satisfaction in virtual worldsâ€, Computers & Education, vol 58, pp. 154-161, 2012.

C.N. Gunawardena, “Social presence theory and implications for interaction and collaborative learning in computer conferences,†International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, vol 1, pp. 147-166, 1995.

K. Nowak, “Defining and differentiating copresence, social presence, and presence as transportation,†paper presented in4th International Workshop on Presence, Philadelphia, PA (2001, Mei) pp. 1-23.

S. Sylaiou, K. Mania, A. Karoulis, and M. White, “Exploring the relationship between presence and enjoyment in a virtual musem,†International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol 68, pp. 243-253, 2010.

H. J. So and T.A. Brush, “Student perceptions of collaborative learning, social presence and satisfaction in a blended learning environment: Relationships and critical factors,†Computers & Education, vol 51(1), pp. 318-336, 2008.

M.H.A. Rahman, N. Yahaya, N.D.A. Halim, and D.N.E. Phon, “Open Wonderland: A potential 3-D MUVE for teaching and learningâ€, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103, pp.695-702, 2013.

B. Dalgarno and M.J.W. Lee, “What are the learning affordances of 3-D virtual environments?â€, British Journal of Educational Technology, vol 41, pp. 10-32, 2010.

K. F. Hew and W.S. Cheung, "Use of Web 2.0 technologies in K-12 and higher education: The search for evidence-based practice", Educational Research Review, vol. 9, pp. 47-64, 2013.

M.R. Nelson, R.A. Yaros, and H. Keum, “Examining the influence of telepresence on spectator and player processing of real and fictitious brands in a computer game,†Journal of Advertising, vol 35, pp. 87-99, 2006.

K. Kreijns, P.A. Kirschner, W. Jochems, and H. Van Buuren, “Measuring perceived sociability of computer-supported collaborative learning environments,†Computers & Education, vol 49, pp. 176-192, 2007.

M. Hassell, Martin, Sandeep Goyal, Moez Limayem, and Imed Boughzala, "Being there: An empirical look at learning outcomes in 3-D virtual worlds." AMCIS 2009 Proceedings (2009): 733, 2009.

C.Y. Piaw, Buku 2: Asas Statistik Penyelidikan, 2nd ed., Malaysia: McGraw-Hill, 2012.

C. Zhang and I. Zigurs, “An exploratory study of the impact of a virtual world learning environment on student interaction and learning satisfaction.†AMCIS 2009 Proceedings (2009): 424, 2009.

S. Warburton, "Second Life in higher education: Assessing the potential for and the barriers to deploying virtual worlds in learning and teaching," British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 414-426, 2009.

J. Freeman and J. Lessiter, “Here, there and everywhere: The effects of multichannel audio on presence,†Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Auditory Display (2001): 231, 2001.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development