Small Review: Strategies for Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) As a New Potential Substrate in Biofuel Production

Hafiza Shukor, Mohd Sahaid Kalil, Nurina Anuar, Aidil Abdul Hamid, Asmidar Hanan


The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a residue from palm oil extraction presently only used as a low protein feed supplement. It’s contains 50% fermentable hexose sugars present in the form of glucan and mainly galactomannan. This makes PKC an interesting feedstock for processing into biofuel or in other biorefinery processes. This article reviews biotechnological innovation on Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) as new potential of fermentable sugar for biofuel production. Strategies for biofuel production by utilizing palm kernel cake by several pretreatment processes to convert glucan and especially galactomanan into fermentable hexose sugar and further requirements to make fermentative biofuel production a successful industrial process are also discussed. This material recovery especially from lignocellulose agricultural wastes by product of palm oil mill industry into this potential bioproducts has not only benefited in oil palm planted but also to the environment and helps preserve natural resource.


Palm Kernel Cake; Biofuel; Lignocelluloses; Fermentable Sugar; Pre-treatment



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Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development