Characterization of Delignified Oil Palm Decanter Cake (OPDC) for Polymer Composite Development

Muhammad Aqif Adam, Alawi Sulaiman, Azhari Samsu Baharuddin, Mohd Noriznan Mokhtar, Karuppuchamy Subbian, Meisam Tabatabaei


For decades agricultural waste materials have been a subject of study for the production of sustainable bioproducts such as biodegradable composite. In Malaysia millions of tonnes of palm oil biomass are produced annually including Oil Palm Decanter Cake (OPDC). In this study, the objective was to characterize the delignified OPDC for potential biodegradable composite development. Chemical delignification is a process of removing the lignin from the plant biomass by using chemicals. Delignification process was performed by treating the raw OPDC with 10% NaOH (alkaline treatment) followed by 25% H 2 SO 4 (acid treatment) and finally 10% H 2 O 2 (bleaching). The result of the treated OPDC showed that cellulose content had increased from 29.4 to 87.6%, while hemicellulose had decreased from 11.2 to 3.1% and finally lignin had decreased from 25.3 to 9.3%. TGA, FTIR and XRD analysis of the raw and treated OPDC samples supported the findings as well. Through morphological analysis of the treated OPDC using FESEM, it showed that the chemical treatment had caused the raw OPDC fibre surface to break-up and open its structure. At the end of this study, the treated OPDC was also exposed to lauric acid for hydrophilic properties study and the result showed that the hydrophobic properties had been developed in the treated OPDC and thus made it suitable for biodegradable composite development.


oil palm; biomass; oil palm decanter cake; delignification; cellulose; lauric acid; contact angle; natural fibre.

Full Text:



Tuates, A.M., and Caparino, O.A. (2016). Development of Biodegradable Plastics as Mango fruit Bag. International Journal on Advanced Science Engineering and Information Technology, 6(5), 799-803.

Nur Hanani, Z.A. and Abdullah, S. (2016). Development of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca) as Potential Food Packaging Films and Coatings. International Journal on Advanced Science Engineering and Information Technology, 6(1), 88-90.

Hassan, F., Zulkefli, R., Ghazali, M.J., and Azhari, C.H. (2017). Kenaf Fiber Composite in Automotive Industry: An Overview. International Journal on Advanced Science and Engineering Information Technology, 7(1), 315-321.

Kabir, M.M., Wang, H., and Cardona, F. (2012). Chemical Treatments on Plant-Based Nature Fibre Reinforced Composite: An Overview. Composite, 43, 2883-2892.

Adam, M.A.., Sulaiman A., Said, C.M.S., Som, A.M., Baharuddin A.S., and Mokhtar M.M. (2014). Preliminary Study of Oil Palm Decanter Cake Natural Polymer Composite (OPDC-NPC). Advanced Materials Research, 911, 40-44.

Adam, M.A., Sulaiman, A., Said, C.M.S., Som, A.M., and Tabatabaei, M. (2015). Enhanced Rigidity of natural Polymer Composite Development from Oil Palm Decanter Cake. BioResources, 10, 932-942.

Dodiuk, H., rios, P.F., Dotan, A., and Kenig, S. (2007). Hydrophobic and self-Cleaning Coatings. Polymer for Advanced Technologies, 18, 746-750.

Nguong, C.W., Lee, S.N.B., and Sujan, D. (2013). A Review on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites. Engineering and Technology, 73, 1123-1130.

Ashori, A. (2008). Wood Plastic Composite as Promising Green Composites for Automotive Industries. Bioresource Technology, 99, 4661-4667.

Saheb, D.N., and Jog, J.P. (1999). Natural Fiber Polymer Composites: A Review. Advances in Polymer Technology, 18, 351-363.

Reddy, N., and Yang, Y. (2005). Biofibers from Agricultural Byproducts for Industrial Application. Trends in Biotechnology, 23 (1), 21-27.

Garcia-Nunez, J.A., Ramirez-Contreras, N.E., Rodriguez, D.T., Silva-Lora, E., Stockle, C., and Garcia-Perez, M. (2016). Evolution of Palm Oil Mills into Bio-Refineries: Literature Review on Current and Potential Uses of Residual Biomass and Effluents. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 110, 99-114.

Faruk, O., Bledzki, A.K., Fink, H.P., and Sain, M. (2012). Biocomposite Reinforced with Natural Fiber: 2000-2010. Progress in Polymer Science, 37, 1552-1596.

Barros, A., Lopez, C., Rico, V., Garcia, F., Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R., Richter, E., Battiston, G., Gerbasi, R., McSporran, N, Sauthier, G., Gyorgy, E., and Figueras, A. (2007). Effect of Visible and UV Illumination on the Water Contact Angle of TiO2 Thin Films with Incorporated Nitrogen. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 111, 1801-1808.

Sidik, S.M., Jalil, A.A., Triwahyono, S., Adam, S.H., Satar, M.A.H., and Hameed, B.H. (2012). Modified Oil palm Leaves Adsorbent with Enhanced Hydrophobicity for Crude Oil Removal. Chemical Engineering Journal, 208, 9-18.

Rzak, M.N.A., Ibrahim, M.F., Yee, P.L., Hassan, M.A., and Aziz, S.A. (2012). Utilization of Oil Palm Decanter Cake for Cellulase and Polyoses Production. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 17, 547-555.

Rosli, N.A., Ahmad, I., and Abdullah, I. (2013). Isolation and Characterisation of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Agave agustifolia Fiber. BioResources, 8, 1893-1908.

Nazir, M.S., Wahjoedi, B.A., Yusoff, A.W., and Abdullah, M.A. (2013). Eco-Friendly Extraction and Characterisation of Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches. BioResources, 8, 2161-2171.

Jacobsen, S.E., and Wyman, C.E. (2000). Cellulose and Hemicellulose Hydrolysis Models for Application to Current and Novel Pretreatment Process. Applied Biochemistry and Bioitechnology, 84, 81-96.

Chan, C.H., Chia, C.H., Zakaria, S., Ahmad, I., and Dufresne, A. (2013). Production and Charaterisation of Cellulose and Nano-Crystalline from Kenaf Core wood. BioResources, 8, 785-794.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development