Biomass and Artemisinin Production of Artemisia annua L. on Several Altitudes

Abimanyu Dipo Nusantara, Yudhy Harini Bertham, Usman Siswanto, Apri Andani


Increasing supply of artemisinin as a multipurpose medicinal compound, especially to cope with malaria, is a global problem that should be solved immediately. This research aimed to obtain high artemisinin production from Artemisia annua L. cultivated at a suitable altitude at Bengkulu Province of Indonesia. Experimental design used was a Split Plot in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications, altitude (1000, 1100 and 1200 m above sea level altitudes each located at Sukasari, Bandung Baru, and Tangsi Duren, Kepahyang District Province Bengkulu of Indonesia) as main plot and bio-fertilizer application (control, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and phosphate solubilizer fungi) as subplot. Each experimental unit received 10 ton ha-1 of cow-dung. Research result shows that altitude significantly affects artemisinin, essential oil, mycorrhizal and phosphate solubilizer fungus population, but not affect biomass production. Overall, Artemisia annua L. was successfully planted at the 1000 – 1200 m above sea level. Biomass and artemisinin production was higher compared to another experiment, i.e. 350 g per plant with 0.21 – 0.43% of artemisinin content.


artemisia annua; artemisinin; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; phosphate solubilizer fungi; elevation.

Full Text:



R.H. Behrens, B. Caroll, U. Hellgren, L.G. Visser, H. Siikamaki, L. S. Vestergaard, G. Calleri, T. Janisch, B. Myrvang, J. Gascon, and C. Hatz. “The incidence of malaria in travelers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator? Malaria J., vol. 9, pp. 266-275. Oct. 2010.

J. Krungkrai, and S.R. Krungkrai. “Antimalarial qinghaosu/artemisinin: The therapy worthy of a Nobel Prize.” Asian Pacific J. Trop. Med., vol 6, pp. 371-375. April 2016.

T. Aftab, J.F.S. Ferreira, M. M.A. Khan, and M. Naeem. (eds). Artemisia annua – Pharmacology and Biotechnology. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. 2014.

R.C Manik. “Isolasi artemisinin dari daun Artemisia annua L”. [Skripsi]. Departemen Farmasi, Institut Teknologi Bandung. 2007.

A.G. Atanasov et al. “Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review. Biotechnol. Adv., vol. 33, pp. 1582–1614. Dec. 2015.

B. Hafeez Kiani, J. Suberu, and B. Mirza. “Cellular engineering of Artemisia annua and Artemisia dubia with the rol ABC genes for enhanced production of potent anti-malarial drug artemisinin.” Malaria J., vol. 15, pp. 252-268. May 2016.

G. Pulice, S. Pelaz, and L. Matías-Hernández. “Molecular farming in Artemisia annua, a promising approach to improve anti-malarial drug production”. Front Pl. Sci., vol. 7: pp. 1 – 17. March 2016.

T. Khaosaad, H. Vierheilig, M. Nell, K. Zitterl-Eglseer, and J. Novak. “Arbuscular mycorrhiza alter the concentration of essential oils in oregano (Origanum sp., Lamiaceae).” Mycorrhiza, vol. 16, pp.443–446. Sept. 2006.

Y.H. Bertham, A.D. Nusantara, and U. Siswanto. “Growth of Artemisia annua, artemisinin synthesis, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization as affected by accession and fertilization.” in Proc. of the 3rd Intern. Symp. for Sust. Humanosphere. The Indonesia Academy of Sciences and the University of Bengkulu. Bengkulu, Indonesia. 17 – 18 Sep. 2013.

Y.H. Bertham, A.D. Nusantara, and U. Siswanto. “Growth and artemisinin content of Artemisia annua L. and soil chemical properties as affected by inoculation of phosphate dissolving fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.” Oct. 2016. (submitted to IJASEIT).

S. Mandal, S. Upadhyay, S. Wajid, R. Kapoor. “Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.” Mycorrhiza, vol. 25, pp. 345-357. Nov. 2014.

J. Rydlová, M. Jelínková, K. Dušek, E. Dušková, M. Vosátka, and D. Püschel. “Arbuscular mycorrhiza differentially affects synthesis of essential oils in coriander and dill.” Mycorrhiza, vol. 26, pp. 123-131. Febr. 2016.

J.W. Wang, H. Tian, X. Yu, and L.P. Zheng. “Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a critical role in artemisinin production of Artemisia annua under salt stress”. Biol. Plant., vol. 11, pp. 1-11. Nov. 2016.

H. Lambers, E. Martinoia, and M. Renton. “Plant adaptations to severely phosphorus-impoverished soils.” Curr. Opin. Pl. Biol., vol. 25, pp. 23-32. Jun. 2015.

M. Miransari. “Stress and mycorrhizal plant.” In M.C. Pagano (ed). Recent Advances on Mycorrhizal Fungi, pp. 63-79. 2016.

Z.M. Solaiman and H.M. Anawar. “Rhizosphere microbes interactions in medicinal plants.” Soil Biol., vol. 42, pp. 19-41. Feb. 2015.

Y. Widiyastuti, M. Suryana, dan R. Mujahid. “Pengaruh photo-periodisitas dan pupuk nitrogen terhadap hasil dan kadar artemisinin tanaman Artemisia annua L” http://www.b2p2toot.litbang.depkes. (accessed on 22 April 2011).

Sulaeman, Suparto, Eviati. Petunjuk Teknis Analisis Kimia Tanah, Tanaman, Air, dan Pupuk. Balai Penelitian Tanah, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Kementerian Pertanian, Bogor. 2005.

L. Pellissier, E.P. Figueroa, H.N. Hirzel, M. Moora, L. Villard, J. Goudet, N. Guex, M. Pagni, I. Xenarios, I. Sanders, and A. Guisan. “Plant species distributions along environmental gradients: do below ground interactions with fungi matter?”. Front. Pl. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 1-9. Dec. 2013.

K. Rinu, A. Pandey, and L.M.S. Palni. “Utilization of psychrotolerant phosphate solubilizing fungi under low-temperature conditions of the mountain ecosystems. In T. Satyanarayana, B.N. Johri, and A. Praksh (eds). Microorganism in Sustainable Agriculture and Biotechnology. pp. 77-90. Jan. 2012.

E.A. Brisibe, O. Udensi, P.N. Chukwurah, P.M. de Magalhaes, G.M. Figueira, and J.F.S. Ferreira. ”Adaptation and agronomic performance of Artemisia annua L. under lowland humid tropical conditions”. Ind. Crop Prod., vol. 39, pp. 190-197. Mar. 2012.

A. Berruti, E. Lumini, R. Balestrini, and V. V. Bianciotto. “Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as natural biofertilizers: let’s benefit from past successes. Front. Microbiol., vol 6, pp. 1-13. Jan. 2016.

C. Kumari and A.K. Jha. 2016. “Association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi beneficial for certain medicinal plants: An overview.” Int. J. Recent Sci. Res., vol 7, pp. 10267-10271. April 2016.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development