Multidimensional Poverty Across Agroecology in Occidental Mindoro, Philippines

Charles Allen L. Herpacio, Irham Irham


Poverty in the context of rural farming is site-specific. The differences in natural resource endowment and availability of social services across Agroecology shape farming households' well-being. In the Philippines, there is a scant supply of comparative studies on the multidimensional poverty situation across different farming systems. This study aimed to close this knowledge gap by assessing the multidimensional poverty and its determinants across upland, lowland, and coastal farming areas in Occidental Mindoro, Philippines. Using the Alkire-Foster methodology, data from 210 randomly selected farming households revealed that five of seven households are multidimensionally poor. The coastal area registered the highest Multidimensional Poverty Index at 0.41, where most households are deprived of education, decent housing, clean fuel source, paved access road, and farmland. Also, the analysis exposed the poverty dominance of indigenous farming households over non-indigenous migrant households. For all the Agroecology, the households' lack of education and incapacity to take on economic opportunities and secure productive assets limits them from investing in things that improve their living conditions. Estimates of binary logistic regression showed that non-indigenous farming households with female and educated householders, fewer dependents, larger agricultural holdings, access to formal credits, and non-farm business are significantly less likely to fall into poverty. The local government and concerned development organizations may consider investing in social protection programs that improve access to formal education, spur on-farm and non-farm livelihood opportunities, and enhance public infrastructure services to reduce multidimensional poverty in Occidental Mindoro.


Agroecology; Alkire-Foster methodology; indigenous people; multidimensional poverty; farming households

Full Text:



S. Freije-Rodríguez et al., “Reversals of fortune,” Washington, DC, 2020. doi: 10.1596/978-1-4648-1602-4.

S. Alkire and M. E. Santos, “A Multidimensional Approach: Poverty Measurement & Beyond,” Soc. Indic. Res., vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 239–257, 2013, doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0257-3.

Philippine Statistics Authority, “Filipino Families Are Most Deprived in Education | Philippine Statistics Authority,” 2018. .

Philippine Statistics Authority, “Farmers, Fisherfolks, Individuals Residing in Rural Areas and Children Posted the Highest Poverty Incidences Among the Basic Sectors in 2018,” Philippine Statistics Authority, 2020. .

Z. Zhang, C. Ma, and A. Wang, “A longitudinal study of multidimensional poverty in rural China from 2010 to 2018,” Econ. Lett., vol. 204, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.econlet.2021.109912.

S. Fahad, H. Nguyen-Thi-Lan, D. Nguyen-Manh, H. Tran-Duc, and N. To-The, “Analyzing the status of multidimensional poverty of rural households by using sustainable livelihood framework: policy implications for economic growth,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 16106–16119, 2023, doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-23143-0.

F. Eshetu, J. Haji, M. Ketema, and A. Mehare, “Determinants of rural multidimensional poverty of households in Southern Ethiopia,” Cogent Soc. Sci., vol. 8, no. 1, 2022, doi: 10.1080/23311886.2022.2123084.

A. A. Barati, M. Zhoolideh, M. Moradi, E. Sohrabi Mollayousef, and C. Fürst, Multidimensional poverty and livelihood strategies in rural Iran, vol. 24, no. 11. Springer Netherlands, 2022.

M. Israr, H. Ross, S. Ahmad, N. Ahmad, and U. Pervaiz, “Measuring multidimensional poverty among farm households in rural Pakistan towards sustainable development goals,” Sarhad J. Agric., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 130–142, 2020, doi: 10.17582/journal.sja/2020/

V. N. Hoang and D. C. Vu, “On the effects of trade on multidimensional deprivation: Evidence from Vietnam’s rice growing households,” Econ. Anal. Policy, vol. 71, pp. 476–485, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.eap.2021.06.004.

L. O. Olarinde et al., “Estimating multidimensional poverty among cassava producers in Nigeria: Patterns and socioeconomic determinants,” Sustain., vol. 12, no. 13, 2020, doi: 10.3390/su12135366.

B. T. Alemu and S. P. Singh, “How Does Multidimensional Rural Poverty Vary across Agro-ecologies in Rural Ethiopia? Evidence from the Three Districts,” J. Poverty, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 480–498, 2021, doi: 10.1080/10875549.2020.1869659.

A. U. Khan and A. H. Shah, “Reflections of Multidimensional Poverty Across Agro-Climatic Zones: Evidence from the Punjab Province of Pakistan,” J. Poverty, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 130–146, 2020, doi: 10.1080/10875549.2019.1668898.

C. Wang, Y. Wang, H. Fang, B. Gao, Z. Weng, and Y. Tian, “Determinants of Rural Poverty in Remote Mountains of Southeast China from the Household Perspective,” Soc. Indic. Res., vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 793–810, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s11205-020-02348-1.

C. Wang et al., “Measurements and Determinants of Multidimensional Poverty: Evidence from Mountainous Areas of Southeast China,” J. Soc. Serv. Res., vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 743–761, 2021, doi: 10.1080/01488376.2021.1914283.

W. Jiao, “Analyzing multidimensional measures of poverty and their influences in China’s Qinba Mountains,” Chinese J. Popul. Resour. Environ., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 214–221, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.cjpre.2021.04.002.

D. T. Nguyen et al., “Insight into the Multidimensional Poverty of the Mountainous Ethnic Minorities in Central Vietnam,” 2023.

Y. Lu, J. K. Routray, and M. M. Ahmad, “Multidimensional Poverty Analysis at the Local Level in Northwest Yunnan Province, China: Some Insights and Implications,” J. Poverty, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 299–316, 2019, doi: 10.1080/10875549.2018.1555730.

L. Florey and C. Taylor, “Using household survey data to explore the effects of improved housing conditions on malaria infection in children in Sub-Saharan Africa,” 2016.

S. Susilo, N. F. Istiawati, M. Aliman, and M. Z. Alghani, “Investigation of Early Marriage: A Phenomenology Study in the Society of Bawean Island, Indonesia,” J. Popul. Soc. Stud., vol. 29, pp. 544–562, 2021, doi: 10.25133/JPSSv292021.034.

A. M. Eyasu, “Determinants of poverty in rural households: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopia,” Cogent Food Agric., vol. 6, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1080/23311932.2020.1823652.

G. L. Calitang and R. G. Orpiano, “Kaingin farming practices of Hanunuo farmers in Paclolo, Magsaysay, Occidental Mindoro, Philippines,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 1145, no. 1, 2023, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/1145/1/012002.

K. Sekine, “The potential and contradictions of geographical indication and patrimonization for the sustainability of indigenous communities: A case of cordillera heirloom rice in the Philippines,” Sustain., vol. 13, no. 8, 2021, doi: 10.3390/su13084366.

A. G. Gabriel, M. De Vera, and M. A. Marc, “Roles of indigenous women in forest conservation: A comparative analysis of two indigenous communities in the Philippines,” Cogent Soc. Sci., vol. 6, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1080/23311886.2020.1720564.

Philippine Statistics Authority, “PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates | Philippine Statistics Authority.” 2021.

R. Choudhary et al., “Sociodemographic Factors Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination among People in Guatemalan Municipalities,” Vaccines, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1–17, 2023, doi: 10.3390/vaccines11040745.

J. Lee and Y. Huang, “COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: The Role of Socioeconomic Factors and Spatial Effects,” Vaccines, vol. 10, no. 3, 2022, doi: 10.3390/vaccines10030352.

F. Waswa, M. Mcharo, and M. Mworia, “Declining wood fuel and implications for household cooking and diets in tigania Sub-county Kenya,” Sci. African, vol. 8, p. e00417, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00417.

A. Salam, D. S. Pratomo, and P. M. A. Saputra, “Sosio-economic determinants of multidimensional poverty in the rural and urban areas of East Java,” Int. J. Sci. Technol. Res., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1445–1449, 2020.

Á. J. Altamirano Montoya and K. M. D. Teixeira, “Multidimensional Poverty in Nicaragua: Are Female-Headed Households Better Off?,” Soc. Indic. Res., vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 1037–1063, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s11205-016-1345-y.

Y. Mare, Y. Gecho, and M. Mada, “Determinants of multidimensional rural poverty in Burji and Konso area, Southern Ethiopia,” Cogent Soc. Sci., vol. 8, no. 1, 2022, doi: 10.1080/23311886.2022.2068757.

S. Shah and N. Debnath, “Determinants of Multidimensional Poverty in Rural Tripura, India,” J. Quant. Econ., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 69–95, 2022, doi: 10.1007/s40953-021-00256-w.

J. P. Eduardo and A. G. Gabriel, “Indigenous Peoples and the Right to Education: The Dumagat Experience in the Provinces of Nueva Ecija and Aurora, in the Philippines,” SAGE Open, vol. 11, no. 2, 2021, doi: 10.1177/21582440211009491.

C. A. Duante, R. E. G. Austria, A. J. D. Ducay, C. C. S. Acuin, and M. V. Capanzana, “Nutrition and Health Status of Indigenous Peoples (IPs) in the Philippines: Results of the 2013 National Nutrition Survey and 2015 Updating Survey,” Philipp. J. Sci., vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 513–531, 2022, doi: 10.56899/151.01.39.

M. N. Lopez and M. Villegas, “Eating Lifestyle Assessment of Agta Dumagats at Brgy. Malinao Gabaldon, Nueva Ecija: A Basis for an Extension Program,” PalArch’s J. Archaeol. Egypt / Egyptol., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 3520–3537, 2020, doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3523604.

M. K. Saifullah, M. M. Masud, and F. B. Kari, “Vulnerability context and well-being factors of Indigenous community development: a study of Peninsular Malaysia,” AlterNative, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 94–105, 2021, doi: 10.1177/1177180121995166.

F. Z. Birhanu, A. S. Tsehay, and D. A. Bimerew, “Heterogeneous effects of improving technical efficiency on household multidimensional poverty: evidence from rural Ethiopia,” Heliyon, vol. 7, no. 12, p. e08613, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08613.

S. Kiros and G. B. Meshesha, “Factors affecting farmers’ access to formal financial credit in Basona Worana District, North Showa Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia,” Cogent Econ. Financ., vol. 10, no. 1, 2022, doi: 10.1080/23322039.2022.2035043.

A. A. Chandio, Y. Jiang, A. Rehman, M. A. Twumasi, A. G. Pathan, and M. Mohsin, “Determinants of demand for credit by smallholder farmers’: a farm level analysis based on survey in Sindh, Pakistan,” J. Asian Bus. Econ. Stud., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 225–240, 2021, doi: 10.1108/JABES-01-2020-0004.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development