The Effect of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Concentration and Fermentation Time on Chemical and Functional Properties of Duck Egg Flour

Andry Pratama, Eka Wulandari, Roostita L. Balia


Duck egg flour is a form of processed product from whole eggs through a drying process. The production process influences egg flour's quality. Fermentation of egg flour before drying is one approach to preserve its quality. Fermenting eggs with yeast prevents the Maillard reaction and improve duck egg flour quality. This study aimed to examine the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae concentration and fermentation time on duck egg flour's chemical and functional properties. This research used a nested design in a completely random design with fermentation times of 12 and 24 hours and concentrations of 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6%. The results indicated that fermented duck egg flour with a 0.2% concentration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 24 hours generated the optimum chemical and functional properties (4.43% ash content, 13.74% protein content, 134.9% carbohydrate content, 6.45% water content, 169.33% foaming power, and 44.68% foaming stability).


Duck egg; fermentation; S. cerevisiae; chemical properties; functional properties

Full Text:



L. E. Mopera, P. M. Saludo, F. P. Flores, M. J. V. Sumague, B. R. R. Oliveros, and W. T. Tan, “Physicochemical, nutritional and sensory qualities of salted philippine mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos l.) eggs,†Food Res., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 279–287, 2021, doi: 10.26656/fr.2017.5(4).025.

L. E. Palacios and T. Wang, “Egg-yolk lipid fractionation and lecithin characterization,†JAOCS, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 571–578, 2005, doi: 10.1007/s11746-005-1111-4.

E. D. N. S. Abeyrathne, H. Y. Lee, and D. U. Ahn, “Egg white proteins and their potential use in food processing or as nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agents-A review,†Poult. Sci., vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 3292–3299, 2013, doi: 10.3382/ps.2013-03391.

S. Li, Y. Huang, F. An, Q. Huang, F. Geng, and M. Ma, “Hydroxyl radical-induced early stage oxidation improves the foaming and emulsifying properties of ovalbumin,†Poult. Sci., vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 1047–1054, 2019, doi: 10.3382/ps/pey370.

P. Mendes de Souza, R. de Melo, M. Aparecida de Aguilar Santos, F. Regina Lima, and K. Héllen Vieira, “Risk Management of Egg and Egg Products: Advanced Methods Applied,†Food Eng., 2019, doi: 10.5772/intechopen.82691.

M. Parapouli, A. Vasileiadis, A. S. Afendra, and E. Hatziloukas, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its industrial applications, vol. 6, no. 1. 2020.

A. Nasir, S. S. Rahman, M. M. Hossain, and N. Choudhury, “ Isolation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from pineapple and orange and study of metal’s effectiveness on ethanol production ,†Eur. J. Microbiol. Immunol., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 76–91, 2017, doi: 10.1556/1886.2016.00035.

M. E. Pérez-Reyes, J. Tang, G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas, and M. J. Zhu, “Influence of water activity and dry-heating time on egg white powders quality,†Lwt, vol. 140, p. 110717, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110717.

C. Sun, J. Liu, N. Yang, and G. Xu, “Egg quality and egg albumen property of domestic chicken, duck, goose, Turkey, quail, and pigeon,†Poult. Sci., vol. 98, no. 10, pp. 4516–4521, 2019, doi: 10.3382/ps/pez259.

M. Betti, C. Ciacci, S. Abramovich, and F. Frontalini, “Protein extractions from amphistegina lobifera: Protocol development and optimization,†Life, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1–10, 2021, doi: 10.3390/life11050418.

Hen Yo Ho et al., “Improvement of Foaming Characteristics and Stability of Sterilized Liquid Egg with Egg White Hydrolysate (EWH),†vol. 10, pp. 1–14, 2021.

E. Abreha, P. Getachew, A. Laillou, S. Chitekwe, and K. Baye, “Physico-chemical and functionality of air and spray dried egg powder: implications to improving diets,†Int. J. Food Prop., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 152–162, 2021, doi: 10.1080/10942912.2020.1867569.

P. Kiczorowski, B. Kiczorowska, W. Samolińska, M. Szmigielski, and A. Winiarska-Mieczan, “Effect of fermentation of chosen vegetables on the nutrient, mineral, and biocomponent profile in human and animal nutrition,†Sci. Rep., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2022, doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-17782-z.

K. Jatuwong, N. Suwannarach, J. Kumla, W. Penkhrue, P. Kakumyan, and S. Lumyong, “Bioprocess for Production, Characteristics, and Biotechnological Applications of Fungal Phytases,†Front. Microbiol., vol. 11, no. February, pp. 1–18, 2020, doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00188.

B. A. S. Santos, S. P. H. Azambuja, P. F. Ãvila, M. T. B. Pacheco, and R. Goldbeck, “n-Butanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from protein-rich agro-industrial by-products,†Brazilian J. Microbiol., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1655–1664, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s42770-020-00370-6.

T. Nur Indah Koni, T. Anggarini Yuniwaty Foenay, and A. Asrul, “The nutrient value of banana peel fermented by tape yeast as poultry feedstuff,†J. Ilmu-Ilmu Peternak., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 234–240, 2019, doi: 10.21776/ub.jiip.2019.029.03.05.

S. Rizal, M. E. Kustyawati, A. S. Suharyono, and V. A. Suyarto, “Changes of nutritional composition of tempeh during fermentation with the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,†Biodiversitas, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1553–1559, 2022, doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d230345.

Rahmawati, W. Taurina, and M. Andrie, “Pengaruh minyak cengkeh (Syzygium aromaticum L.) terhadap stabilitas protein sediaan salep fase air ekstrak ikan gabus (Channa striata) dengan penetapan kadar protein menggunakan metode Lowry,†J. Mhs. Farm. Fak. Kedokt. UNTAN, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2019.

D. Pujimulyati, S. Andiwarsana, and Suprapti, “Pengaruh Waktu Fermentasi terhadap Sifat Fungsional dan Warna Tepung Albumin Telur Itik,†Agritech: Jurnal Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian UGM, vol. 21, no. 3. pp. 108–112, 2016, doi: 10.22146/agritech.13594.

Y. Chen, L. Sheng, M. Gouda, and M. Ma, “Studies on foaming and physicochemical properties of egg white during cold storage,†Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp., vol. 582, no. June, p. 123916, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2019.123916.

E. Syainah, “Pengaruh Penambahan Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pada Pengolahan Tepung Berbagai Jenis Telur Terhadap Mutu Tepung (The Effect About Added Saccharomyces cerevisiae Against Flour Processing Various Type Of Egg Against Quality Of Flour),†Ziraa’Ah, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 177–181, 2012.

I. M. Nusa, B. Suarti, and R. A. Marbun, “Penambahan Ragi Tempe Dan Lama Fermentasi Terhadap Sifat Mutu Tepung Albumin Telur Puyuh,†Agrium, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 211–221, 2017.

X. Wang, Z. Wei, and C. Xue, “The past and future of ovotransferrin: Physicochemical properties, assembly and applications,†Trends Food Sci. Technol., vol. 116, no. June, pp. 47–62, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2021.07.003.

V. M. Kupfer, E. I. Vogt, A. K. Siebert, M. L. Meyer, R. F. Vogel, and L. Niessen, “Foam-stabilizing properties of the yeast protein PAU5 and evaluation of factors that can influence its concentration in must and wine,†Food Res. Int., vol. 102, no. May, pp. 111–118, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.060.

T. N. Prakusya, “Sifat Fisikokimia dan Fungsional Tepung Telur Utuh dengan Penambahan Berbagai Konsentrasi Ragi Roti (Saccharomyces cereviceae),†2021.

H. Xiang, D. Sun-Waterhouse, G. I. N. Waterhouse, C. Cui, and Z. Ruan, “Fermentation-enabled wellness foods: A fresh perspective,†Food Sci. Hum. Wellness, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 203–243, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.fshw.2019.08.003.

Johana C. likadja muhammad irfan said and Asteria, “Karakteristik Tepung Telur Ayam Ras Yang Difermentasi Dengan Ragi Tape Secara Aerob†J. Peternak., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2018.

X. Li, Y. M. Wang, C. F. Sun, J. H. Lv, and Y. J. Yang, “Comparative study on foaming properties of egg white with yolk fractions and their hydrolysates,†Foods, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1–13, 2021, doi: 10.3390/foods10092238.

L. Tian et al., “Effects of short-term fermentation with lactic acid bacteria on the characterization, rheological and emulsifying properties of egg yolk,†Food Chem., vol. 341, p. 128163, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128163.

H. F. dan H. Amaliah, L., Nahariah, “Karakteristik fungsional telur infertil sisa hasil penetasan yang difermentasi menggunakan,†J. ilmu dan Teknol. Peternak., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 107–112, 2017.

E. Romantica, I. Thohari, and L. E. Radiati, “Effect on Fermentation Time to Water Content, Rendement, Foaming Capacity and Foaming Stability of Pan Drying Egg Powder,†J. Apl. Teknol. Pangan, vol. IV, pp. 1–8, 2017, [Online]. Available:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development