Enhancing Mathematics Learners' Experience using Mobile Augmented Reality: Conceptual Framework for the Design and Evaluation

Nur Izza Nabila Ahmad, Syahrul Nizam Junaini, Suriati Khartini Jali


The application of augmented reality (AR) has been demonstrated, especially in education. However, to our knowledge, no conceptual framework exists to assist in designing effective augmented reality applications for a specific topic in the mathematics curriculum, such as square and square roots. This study proposes a conceptual framework for the design of augmented reality applications for mathematics. Multiple elements were included in the framework, including specification, design, and evaluation. A preliminary study elicited opinions and information from students and teachers. The proposed framework was used as the guideline to develop an augmented reality mobile application for square and square root topics. We later conducted application testing sessions to evaluate the app's usability. The sessions include app demonstration, pre-and post-test, usability testing, and an interview session to assess user satisfaction. Twenty lower secondary students (13 years old; seven males and thirteen females) took part. The findings of the pre-and post-tests and the application's usability and user interface satisfaction test show that the application has been proven effective in learning mathematics. There is a statistically significant difference between the pre-and post-test means. The application effectiveness level is 72.6 percent. Positive responses were also received during the interview. The findings indicate that the suggested framework may serve as a guide for designing future effective augmented reality applications for mathematics learning.


Augmented reality; mobile learning; learning experiences, students, design and implementations, game-based learning

Full Text:



Harun, N. Tuli, and A. Mantri, "Experience Fleming's rule in electromagnetism using augmented reality: Analyzing impact on students learning," Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 172, no. 2019, pp. 660–668, 2020.

H. Hanafi, M. H. Abd Wahab, A. Z. Selamat Ph.D, A. H. Masnan, and M. Huda, "A Systematic Review of Augmented Reality in Multimedia Learning Outcomes in Education," Intell. Hum. Comput. Interact., pp. 63–72, 2021.

F. A. R. O. B. Ahmad, "The Effect of Augmented Reality in Improving Visual Thinking in Mathematics of 10th-Grade Students in Jordan," Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 352–360, 2021.

D. N. A. L. E. Phon, M. H. A. Rahman, N. I. Utama, M. B. Ali, N. D. A. Halim, and S. Kasim, "The effect of augmented reality on spatial visualization ability of elementary school student," Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 624–629, 2019.

A. A. Kamal, S. N. Junaini, A. H. Hashim, F. S. Sukor, and M. F. Said, "The Enhancement of OSH Training with an Augmented Reality-Based App," Int. J. Online Biomed. Eng., vol. 17, no. 13, pp. 120–134, 2021.

N. I. N. Ahmad and S. N. Junaini, "Augmented Reality for Learning Mathematics: A Systematic Literature Review," Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Learn., vol. 15, no. 16, pp. 106–122, 2020.

P. Petrov, T. Atanasova, and G. Kostadinov, "Enhancing Art Education in School Through Augmented Reality," 7th SWS Int. Sci. Conf. Soc. Sci. - ISCSS Proc. 2020, vol. 7, no. October 2021, pp. 99–106, 2020.

J.-Y. Lai and L.-T. Chang, "Impacts of Augmented Reality Apps on First Graders' Motivation and Performance in English Vocabulary Learning," SAGE Open, vol. 11, no. 4, p. 215824402110475, Oct. 2021.

Z. R. Mahayuddin and N. Mamat, "Implementing augmented reality (AR) on phonics-based literacy among children with autism," Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 2176–2181, 2019.

B. Redondo, R. Cózar-Gutiérrez, J. A. González-Calero, and R. Sánchez Ruiz, “Integration of Augmented Reality in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in Early Childhood Education,†Early Child. Educ. J., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 147–155, 2020.

C. Erbas and V. Demirer, "The effects of augmented reality on students' academic achievement and motivation in a biology course," J. Comput. Assist. Learn., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 450–458, 2019.

A. Purwinarko, W. Hardyanto, and M. A. Adhi, "Development of learning media for earth physics based on augmented reality as an interactive learning media," J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1918, no. 4, p. 042131, Jun. 2021.

R. K. T. A. Ba, Y. Cai, and Y. Guan, "Augmented reality simulation of cardiac circulation using applearn (heart)," Proc. - 2018 IEEE Int. Conf. Artif. Intell. Virtual Reality, AIVR 2018, pp. 241–243, 2019.

K. Awang, S. N. W. Shamsuddin, I. Ismail, N. A. Rawi, and M. M. Amin, "The usability analysis of using augmented reality for linus students," Indones. J. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 58–64, 2019.

R. Z. Ramli, N. A. U. Marobi, and N. Sahari@Ashaari, "Microorganisms: Integrating Augmented Reality and Gamification in a Learning Tool," Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 354–359, 2021.

N. I. N. Ahmad and S. N. Junaini, “PrismAR : A mobile Augmented Reality Mathematics Card Game for Learning Prism,†Int. J. Comput. Digit. Syst., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 217–225, 2022.

N. Kononova, N. Shiryaeva, I. Oblasova, and A. Pletuhina, "The use of augmented reality technology in the educational process," CEUR Workshop Proc., vol. 2494, no. May, pp. 20–23, 2019.

S. Schutera et al., "On the Potential of Augmented Reality for Mathematics Teaching with the Application cleARmaths," Educ. Sci., vol. 11, no. 8, p. 368, Jul. 2021.

T. Khan, K. Johnston, and J. Ophoff, "The Impact of an Augmented Reality Application on Learning Motivation of Students," Adv. Human-Computer Interact., vol. 2019, pp. 1–14, 2019.

N. F. Saidin, N. D. A. Halim, and N. Yahaya, "Framework for developing a Mobile Augmented Reality for learning chemical bonds," Int. J. Interact. Mob. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 54–68, 2019.

M. A. Rahman, L. S. Ling, and O. S. Yin, "Augmented Reality for Learning Calculus: A Research Framework of Interactive Learning System," in Computational Science and Technology, 2020, pp. 491–499.

P. Kureerung and L. Ramingwong, "A Framework for Usability Design to Promote Awareness of Information Disseminated via Mobile Government Applications," 2019 IEEE 10th Int. Conf. Aware. Sci. Technol. iCAST 2019 - Proc., pp. 1–6, 2019.

R. E. Balcita and T. D. Palaoag, "Augmented reality model framework for maritime education to alleviate the factors affecting learning experience," Int. J. Inf. Educ. Technol., vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 603–607, 2020.

A. Kapetanaki, A. Krouska, C. Troussas, and C. Sgouropoulou, "A novel framework incorporating augmented reality and pedagogy for improving reading comprehension in special education," Front. Artif. Intell. Appl., vol. 338, pp. V–VI, 2021.

J. Brooke, "SUS: A quick and dirty usability scale," Usability Eval. Ind., vol. 189, no. 194, pp. 4–7, 1995.

J. R. Lewis, "The System Usability Scale: Past, Present, and Future," Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact., vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 577–590, 2018.

J. P. Chin, V. A. Diehl, and K. L. Norman, "Development of an Instrument Measuring User Satisfaction of the Human-Computer Interface," ACM CHIi', vol. Part F1302, pp. 213–218, 1988.

H. S. A. Latiff, R. Razali, and F. F. Ismail, "User interface design guidelines for children mobile learning applications," Int. J. Recent Technol. Eng., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 3311–3319, 2019.

E. J. Sosa, R. A. Aguilar, J. L. López, and O. S. Gómez, “Educational Software based on Augmented Reality : A Systematic Literature Review,†vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1324–1329, 2021.

R. E. Mayer and L. Fiorella, "Principles for reducing extraneous processing in multimedia learning: Coherence, signaling, redundancy, spatial contiguity, and temporal contiguity principles," Cambridge Handb. Multimed. Learn. Second Ed., pp. 279–315, 2014.

A. Bangor, P. T. Kortum, and J. T. Miller, "An empirical evaluation of the system usability scale," Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 574–594, 2008.

L. A. H. Moreno, J. G. L. Solórzano, M. T. T. Morales, O. O. V. Villegas, and V. G. C. Sánchez, "Effects of using mobile augmented reality for simple interest computation in a financial mathematics course," PeerJ Comput. Sci., vol. 7, pp. 1–33, 2021.

D. Alahmadi, H. Bitar, H. ALsaadi, L. Boker, and L. Alghamdi, "Using Augmented Reality to Enhance Medical Education in Heart Diseases: Action Design Research," TEM J., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1141–1148, 2021.

N. R. Ramadhani, A. Mulyanto, and G. S. Niwanputri, "Designing Interaction and User Interface of Computational Thinking Digital Game for Children using User-Centered Design Approach," 2020 7th Int. Conf. Adv. Informatics Concepts, Theory Appl. ICAICTA 2020, pp. 1–6, 2020.

I. Jalaluddin, L. Ismail, and R. Darmi, "Developing vocabulary knowledge among low achievers: Mobile augmented reality (MAR) practicality," Int. J. Inf. Educ. Technol., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 813–819, 2020.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.13.3.17112


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development