[RETRACTED] Digital Technology Fluency and BIM Learning Environment in Undergraduate Construction Management

Wang Dan, Radzi Ismail, Tan Jo Yen, Khoo Terh Jing, Kan Zhangfei, Zhang Yunbo, Mohd Wira Mohd Shafiei, Ha Chin Yee



Available online: 28 February 2023

This article has been retracted by International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology Editorial team, following clear correspondence and confirmation with authors.

The paper is retracted from 5 September 2023.


Building Information Modelling (BIM) education is gaining more attention from various parties such as government, industry, and academicians. Many universities have integrated BIM into their curricula by using various approaches and teaching methods, but there is no commonly accepted approach to teaching BIM in Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) programs. This research aims to identify the level of BIM literacy among students in higher education institutions and its correlation with the components of BIM learning and the outcomes of BIM learning progress. A quantitative method was adopted where Partial Least Square – Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis was used to analyze the data. Questionnaires were distributed to the respondents for data collection. A total of 33 respondents were chosen, consisting of second-year undergraduate Construction Management students at Universiti Sains Malaysia. The results were analyzed by using SPSS and SmartPLS 3. SPSS was used to study the correlation between variables, whereas SmartPLS was used to conduct other tests such as the path coefficient, bootstrapping, coefficient of determination (R-squared), effect size (F-squared), collinearity statistics (VIF), inner and outer VIF value, outer loading and outer weights. From the result findings, it was found that the respondents have less knowledge of the BIM software. The respondents also felt neutral toward improving their CGPA through BIM courses. Results showed that 3D parametric modeling and outcomes of BIM learning are correlated. For future research, the focus can be shifted to other BIM competencies, such as the managerial, functional, technical, and support aspects of BIM.


Digital technology fluency; BIM learning environment; undergraduate; construction management; competency.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.13.1.16946


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