Performance of Household Rice Husk Downdraft Gasifier in Vietnam: Modeling and experiment

Nguyen Van Lanh, Nguyen Huy Bich, Bui Ngoc Hung, Nguyen Nam Quyen


Lack of conventional energy is one of the huge problems that challenge human beings in the next decades. The crude oil might become exhausted in the year 2050 as predicted and harm our environment. Renewable energy development is the effective approach to solve this problem in which biomass has the potential to replace crude oil and fossil fuels. Rice husk is one of the most popular biomass resources in ASEAN countries such as Vietnam, Indonesia, The Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, and other Asian countries like India. Gasification of this biomass is the first approach that there have many works conducted. Rice husk can be used to supply heating energy via directly burning or gasification. A study is necessary to see how the effects of some variables on the biomass gasification products and how to predict these products without the experiment. This paper has presented the modeling and investigation of the Vietnamese rice husk downdraft gasifier. An equilibrium modeling was developed to be used to predict the amount of biochar and syngas compositions. The modeling results showed a particularly good agreement with the experimental one. The average root means square error (RMSE) between experimental and modeling results is 1.642; 1.882; 1.445 and 1.345 in reduction temperature are 750oC; 800oC; 850oC and 900oC, respectively. Therefore, the model developed might be useful to predict the syngas composition and the biochar for rice husk gasification.


Rice husk; biochar; syngas; equilibrium model; downdraft gasifier.

Full Text:



S. Safarian, R. Unnþórsson, and C. Richter, “A review of biomass gasification modelling,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 110, no. November 2018, pp. 378–391, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2019.05.003.

P. Sharma, B. Gupta, M. Pandey, K. Singh Bisen, and P. Baredar, “Downdraft biomass gasification: A review on concepts, designs analysis, modelling and recent advances,” Mater. Today Proc., vol. 46, no. xxxx, pp. 5333–5341, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.08.789.

W. M. Lewandowski, M. Ryms, and W. Kosakowski, “Thermal biomass conversion: A review,” Processes, vol. 8, no. 5, 2020, doi: 10.3390/PR8050516.

A. S. Bisht and N. S. Thakur, “Small scale biomass gasification plants for electricity generation in India: Resources, installation, technical aspects, sustainability criteria & policy,” Renew. Energy Focus, vol. 28, no. 00, pp. 112–126, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ref.2018.12.004.

D. S. Upadhyay, A. K. Sakhiya, K. Panchal, A. H. Patel, and R. N. Patel, “Effect of equivalence ratio on the performance of the downdraft gasifier – An experimental and modelling approach,” Energy, vol. 168, pp. 833–846, 2019, doi: 10.1016/

P. Basu, Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis - Practical Design and Theory. Elsevier Ltd, 2010.

C. A. Rinaldini, G. Allesina, S. Pedrazzi, E. Mattarelli, and P. Tartarini, “Modeling and optimization of industrial internal combustion engines running on Diesel/syngas blends,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 182, no. December 2018, pp. 89–94, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2018.12.070.

N. Van Lanh, N. H. Bich, B. N. Hung, D. N. Khang, and P. T. R., “Effect of the air ­ flow on the production of syngas , tar and biochar using rice husk and sawdust as feedstock in an updraft gasifier stove,” Livest. Res. Rural Dev., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 2–7, 2016.

P. Taylor, N. L. Panwar, and N. S. Rathore, “Environment friendly biomass gasifier cookstove for community cooking,” Environ. Technol., no. April, pp. 37–41, 2015, doi: 10.1080/09593330.2015.1026290.

N. H. Bich, N. Van Lanh, and Bui Ngoc Hung, “The Composition of Syngas and Biochar Produced by Gasifier from Viet Nam Rice Husk,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 2258–2263, 2017.

N. Van Lanh, N. H. Bich, N. N. Quyen, B. N. Hung, and P. T. R., “A study on designing , manufacturing and testing a household rice husk gasifier,” Livest. Res. Rural Dev., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 1–8, 2018.

K. B. Sutar, S. Kohli, M. R. Ravi, and A. Ray, “Biomass cookstoves : A review of technical aspects,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 41, pp. 1128–1166, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.09.003.

B. Pandey, Y. K. Prajapati, and P. N. Sheth, “CFD analysis of biomass gasification using downdraft gasifier,” Mater. Today Proc., vol. 44, no. xxxx, pp. 4107–4111, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.10.451.

G. Vonk, B. Piriou, P. Felipe Dos Santos, D. Wolbert, and G. Vaïtilingom, “Comparative analysis of wood and solid recovered fuels gasification in a downdraft fixed bed reactor,” Waste Manag., vol. 85, pp. 106–120, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.12.023.

A. S. El-Shafay, A. A. Hegazi, E. S. B. Zeidan, S. H. El-Emam, and F. M. Okasha, “Experimental and numerical study of sawdust air-gasification,” Alexandria Eng. J., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 3665–3679, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.aej.2020.06.020.

M. Paiva, A. Vieira, H. T. Gomes, and P. Brito, “Simulation of a downdraft gasifier for production of syngas from different biomass feedstocks,” ChemEngineering, vol. 5, no. 2, 2021, doi: 10.3390/chemengineering5020020.

E. S. Aydin, O. Yucel, and H. Sadikoglu, “Experimental study on hydrogen-rich syngas production via gasification of pine cone particles and wood pellets in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 44, no. 32, pp. 17389–17396, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.02.175.

Z. Ma, J. Ye, C. Zhao, and Q. Zhang., “Gasification of Rice Husk in a Downdraft Gasifier: The Effect of Equivalence Ratio on the Gasification Performance, Properties, and Utilization Analysis of Byproducts of Char and Tar,” BioResources, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 2888–2902, 2015.

C. Gai and Y. Dong, “Experimental study on non-woody biomass gasification in a downdraft gasifier,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 4935–4944, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.12.031.

M. Alhinai, A. K. Azad, M. S. A. Bakar, and N. Phusunti, “Characterisation and Thermochemical Conversion of Rice Husk for Biochar Production,” vol. 8, no. 3, 2018.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development