Understanding Social Conflict in Indonesian Infrastructure Projects Based on the Causes and Impacts

Heru Bayuaji Sanggoro, Sofia W. Alisjahbana, Dadang Mohamad


As an archipelagic country with high cultural diversity, development projects in Indonesia are required to involve the community as a stakeholder appropriately. However, community engagement in the project is a dilemma where society can be a good supporter, while on the other side, it can be a risk factor. This research aimed to determine the type of project conflict that affects social conflict between the project and the local community and the impacts arising from social conflict. This study used 40 data on infrastructure projects in Indonesia collected from the questionnaire and analyzed using the Relative Importance Index (RII) method. This research revealed that value conflict was the most influential type causing social conflict, followed by affective, task-related, and rule-related conflicts. A personal relationship is the biggest impact caused by the project's social conflict, followed by the impact of cost, CSR, time, and the local workers' satisfaction. This research indicated that social values and norms still influenced the local community's life. Project managers can use these findings to develop conflict management strategies according to local socio-cultural conditions in order to reduce the potential for project-related conflict to escalate into social conflict. For further research, these results can be used as a reference in developing an appropriate environmental and social framework under the socio-cultural conditions of the Indonesian community; thus, social conflicts can be avoided, and project performance can be achieved according to the specified goals.


Type of conflict; project social conflict; environment and social framework; infrastructure project; local socio-culture.

Full Text:



Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria, “Catatan Akhir Tahun 2018 Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria, Masa Depan Reforma Agraria Melampaui Tahun Politik,†Jakarta, 2018. [Online]. Available: http://kpa.or.id/assets/uploads/files/publikasi/4ae36-catahu-2018-kpa-edisi-peluncuran_.pdf.

Komisi Nasional Hak Asasi Manusia, “Kajian Terhadap Uu Nomor 2 Tahun 2012 Tentang Pengadaan Tanah Bagi Pembangunan Untuk Kepentingan Umum,†Jakarta, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.komnasham.go.id/files/20200116-kajian-terhadap-uu-nomor-2-tahun-$QXA5.pdf .

P. M. Omenge, G. O. Obwoyere, G. W. Eshiamwata, S. M. Makindi, and J. Nathwani, "Environmental and social impact assessment procedural steps that underpin conflict identification: Reference to renewable energy resource development in Kenya," Int. J. Energy Prod. Manag., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 157–174, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.2495/EQ-V5-N2-157-174.

M. Leung, J. Yu, and Q. Liang, "Improving Public Engagement in Construction Development Projects from a Stakeholder's Perspective," J. Constr. Eng. Manag., vol. 139, no. 11, p. 4013019, Nov. 2013, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000754.

H. B. Sanggoro, S. W. Alisjahbana, and D. Mohamad, "Soft System Methodology: Project vs Local Community Interests in Project Social Conflict," Int. J. Eng., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2107–2115, 2021, doi: 10.5829/ije.2021.34.09c.08.

A. Martsri, N. Yodpijit, M. Jongprasithporn, and S. Junsupasen, "Energy, Economic and Environmental (3E) Analysis for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of a 9.9 MW Biomass Power Plant in Thailand," Appl. Sci. Eng. Prog., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 378–386, 2021, doi: 10.14416/j.asep.2020.07.002.

Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), Sixth Edit. Newtown Square-Pennsylvania: Project Management Institute, Inc., 2017.

S. Olander, "External Stakeholder Management in the Construction Process," Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, 2003.

R. E. Freeman, J. S. Harrison, C. W. Andrew, B. L. Parmar, and S. De-Colle, Stakeholder Theory: The State of The Art. Cambridge-UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Said, S. Priyanto, D. Parikesit, and M. Z. Irawan, "Identification and Analysis on Stakeholder of Cross-Border Freight Transportation," Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol. Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 1555–1563, 2020, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.10.4.9994.

T. S. Nguyen and S. Mohamed, "Stakeholder Management in Complex Project," in The 7th World Construction Symposium 2018 : Built Asset Sustainability : Rethinking Design, Construction and Operation, Jul. 2018, pp. 497–506.

S. Khalid and I. Fatima, "Conflict Types And Conflict Management Styles in Public and Private Hospitals," Pakistan Armed Forces Med. J., vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 122–148, Jan. 2016.

H. Wang, X. Zhang, and W. Lu, "Improving Social Sustainability in Construction: Conceptual Framework Based on Social Network Analysis," J. Manag. Eng., vol. 34, no. 6, p. 5018012, Nov. 2018, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000607.

X. Xiahou, Y. Tang, J. Yuan, T. Chang, P. Liu, and Q. Li, "Evaluating Social Performance of Construction Projects: An Empirical Study," Sustainability, vol. 10, no. 7. 2018, doi: 10.3390/su10072329.

J. H. Min, W. Jang, S. H. Han, D. Kim, and Y. H. Kwak, "How Conflict Occurs and What Causes Conflict: Conflict Analysis Framework for Public Infrastructure Projects," J. Manag. Eng., vol. 34, no. 4, p. 4018019, Jul. 2018, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000625.

L. Montalbán-Domingo, T. García-Segura, M. A. Sanz, and E. Pellicer, “Social Sustainability in Delivery and Procurement of Public Construction Contracts,†J. Manag. Eng., vol. 35, no. 2, p. 4018065, Mar. 2019, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000674.

B. Hartono, L. Dzulfikar, and R. Damayanti, "Impact of team diversity and conflict on project performance in Indonesian start-ups," J. Ind. Eng. Manag. Vol 13, No 1, 2020, doi: 10.3926/jiem.3037.

G. Wu, X. Zhao, and J. Zuo, "Effects of inter-organizational conflicts on construction project added value in China," Int. J. Confl. Manag., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 695–723, Jan. 2017, doi: 10.1108/IJCMA-03-2017-0025.

J. M. Riley and W. A. Ellegood, "Relationship conflict, task conflict and teams' transactive memory systems," Int. J. Educ. Manag., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 626–640, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1108/IJEM-01-2019-0003.

P. W. Richardson, "Project Conflict: Conflict Awareness and Mitigation Strategies to Increase Project Success," University of Maryland University College, Maryland, USA, 2014.

J. S. Vaux and W. M. Kirk, "Relationship Conflict in Construction Management: Performance and Productivity Problem," J. Constr. Eng. Manag., vol. 144, no. 6, p. 4018032, Jun. 2018, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0001478.

B. D. C. Rathenam and N. L. Dabup, "Impact of Community Engagement on Public Construction Project – Case Study of Hammanskraal Pedestrian Bridge, City of Tshwane, South Africa," Univers. J. Manag., vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 418–428, 2017, doi: 10.13189/ujm.2017.050902.

T. Çelik, S. Kamali, and Y. Arayici, “Social cost in construction projects,†Environ. Impact Assess. Rev., vol. 64, pp. 77–86, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2017.03.001.

Y. Q. Chen, Y. B. Zhang, and S. J. Zhang, "Impacts of Different Types of Owner-Contractor Conflict on Cost Performance in Construction Projects," J. Constr. Eng. Manag., vol. 140, no. 6, p. 4014017, Jun. 2014, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000852.

Y. Xue and P. Xiang, "The Social Risk of High-Speed Rail Projects in China: A Bayesian Network Analysis," sustainability, vol. 12, no. 5, 2020, doi: 10.3390/su12052087.

M. Kassem, M. A. Khoiry, and N. Hamzah, "Using Relative Importance Index Method for Developing Risk Map in Oil and Gas Construction Projects," J. Kejuruter., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 85–97, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.17576/jkukm-2020-32(3)-09.

H. B. Sanggoro, N. Widyaningsih, and B. P. K. Bintoro, "Analysis influence factors of domination, competency and interpersonal skill in the stakeholder interaction to infrastructure project success," Int. J. Eng. Technol. Vol 9, No 1, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 164–174, 2020, doi: 10.14419/ijet.v9i1.30153.

L. Wang, P. Zhang, L. Ma, X. Cong, and M. J. Skibniewski, "Developing a Corporate Social Responsibility Framework For Sustainable Construction Using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling," Technol. Econ. Dev. Econ., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 186–212, 2020, [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.3846/tede.2020.11263.

J. Meng, J. Yan, and B. Xue, "Exploring Relationships between National Culture and Infrastructure Sustainability Using QCA," J. Constr. Eng. Manag., vol. 144, no. 9, p. 4018082, Sep. 2018, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0001463.

S. Ganapathy, Z. Mansor, and K. Ahmad, "Trends and Challenges of Knowledge Management Technology from Malaysia's Perspective," Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol. Vol. 10 No. 4, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1512–1518, 2020, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.10.4.10275.

Y. Wang and P. Xiang, "Investigate the Conduction Path of Stakeholder Conflict of Urban Regeneration Sustainability in China: the Application of Social-Based Solutions," sustainability, vol. 11, no. 19. p. 5271, 2019, doi: 10.3390/su11195271.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.12.5.15962


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development