Application of the Nailing Technique to Stabilize a Slope in a Section of the Twinning of Road and Rail Infrastructure

Mohamed Ben Ouakkass, Latifa Ouadif, Ahmed Akhssas


Nailing is one of the most widely used stabilization techniques because of its technical and economic advantages. It is a practical and effective solution for the reinforcement of in-place slopes. It consists of placing in the soil high resistance nails to increase the cohesion of the soil and its resistance to traction and shear, which allows having a new material of great capacity. In this paper, we present the slope stability study in a section twinning of the road and railroad infrastructures between the kilometer points (KP) 105+938 and 106+263 of the line connecting Casablanca to Marrakech. The railroad track's topographic constraints and geometric requirements made the nailing method appeal to the realization of the new railroad in this area. The objective of this work is, on the one hand, to present the stability analysis of the slope before the earthwork and the implementation of the new railroad and, on the other hand, to evaluate the performance and stability of the nailed walls. The stability analysis of the soils in this section was verified in terms of safety coefficient using the calculation software TALREN. In the end, it can be concluded that the stability calculation results are conclusive and allow for highlighting the effectiveness of the innovative solution of nailing. This technique can be considered a good alternative to improve the safety and performance of excavation walls.


Reinforcement; nailing; stability; twinning; slope; retaining.

Full Text:



B. R. Srinivasa Murthy, G. L. Sivakumar Babu, and A. Srinivas, "Analysis of prototype soil-nailed retaining wall," Gr. Improv., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 129–136, 2002, doi: 10.1680/grim.

L. Wang, G. Zhang, and J. M. Zhang, "Nail reinforcement mechanism of cohesive soil slopes under earthquake conditions," Soils Found., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 459–469, 2010, doi: 10.3208/sandf.50.459.

X. Ye, S. Wang, Q. Wang, S. W. Sloan, and D. Sheng, "Numerical and experimental studies of the mechanical behaviour for compaction grouted soil nails in sandy soil," Comput. Geotech., vol. 90, pp. 202–214, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.06.011.

A. Pak, J. Maleki, N. Aghakhani, and M. Yousefi, "Numerical investigation of stability of deep excavations supported by soil-nailing method," Geomech. Geoengin., 2019, doi: 10.1080/17486025.2019.1680878.

T. T. Bui, M. Bost, A. Limam, J. P. Rajot, and P. Robit, "Modular precast concrete facing for soil-nailed retaining walls: laboratory study and in situ validation," Innov. Infrastruct. Solut., vol. 5, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s41062-019-0250-z.

Y. Kim, S. Lee, and S. Jeong, "The effect of pressure-grouted soil nails on the stability of weathered soil slopes," Comput. Geotech., vol. 49, pp. 253–263, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2012.12.003.

M. W. Bo, M. Fabius, A. Arulrajah, and S. Horpibulsuk, "Environmentally Friendly Slope Stabilization Using a Soil Nail and Root System in Canada," in Ground Improvement Case Histories: Chemical, Electrokinetic, Thermal and Bioengineering Methods, 2015, pp. 629–654.

M. Yazdandoust, "Experimental study on seismic response of soil-nailed walls with permanent facing," Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., vol. 98, no. February, pp. 101–119, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.04.009.

S. Alsubal, I. S. H. Harahap, and N. Muhammad Babangida, "A Typical Design of Soil Nailing System for Stabilizing a Soil Slope: Case Study," Indian J. Sci. Technol., vol. 10, no. 4, 2017, doi: 10.17485/ijst/2017/v10i4/110891.

N. Kotake and E. Sato, "Bearing capacity of a flexible plastic plate for soil nailing," Int. J. Phys. Model. Geotech., vol. 21, no. 1, 2021, doi: 10.1680/jphmg.18.00102.

W. R. Azzam and A. Basha, "Utilization of soil nailing technique to increase shear strength of cohesive soil and reduce settlement," J. Rock Mech. Geotech. Eng., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1104–1111, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jrmge.2017.05.009.

S. Hirschmüller, R. Marte, and A. Englberger, "Applicability of finger jointing to circular laminated veneer hollow sections for temporary soil nailing," Eur. J. Wood Wood Prod., vol. 78, no. 5, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s00107-020-01577-y.

A. Sharma and R. Ramkrishnan, "Parametric Optimization and Multi-regression Analysis for Soil Nailing Using Numerical Approaches," Geotech. Geol. Eng., vol. 38, no. 4, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s10706-020-01230-8.

I. E. Zevgolis and Z. A. Daffas, "System reliability assessment of soil nail walls," Comput. Geotech., vol. 98, no. July, pp. 232–242, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.10.020.

S. Dewedree and S. N. Jusoh, "Slope stability analysis under different soil nailing parameters using the SLOPE/W software," in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2019, vol. 1174, no. 1, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1174/1/012008.

J. de Sauvage, M. Blanc, T. Dubreucq, and J. P. Rajot, “Centrifuge modelling of a soil-nailed wall,†17th Eur. Conf. Soil Mech. Geotech. Eng. ECSMGE 2019 - Proc., vol. 2019-Septe, 2019, doi: 10.32075/17ECSMGE-2019-0323.

W. Han, G. Li, Z. Sun, H. Luan, C. Liu, and X. Wu, "Numerical investigation of a foundation pit supported by a composite soil nailing structure," Symmetry (Basel)., vol. 12, no. 2, 2020, doi: 10.3390/sym12020252.

M. Ben Ouakkass, L. Ouadif, A. Akhssas, and L. Bahi, “Etude de la dégradation de la géométrie de la voie ferrée entre les PK80 et 105 au niveau du plateau de Settat (Maroc),†in MATEC Web of Conferences, 2018, vol. 149, pp. 1–8, doi: 10.1051/matecconf/201714902021.

H. Tokhi, G. Ren, and J. Li, "Laboratory pullout resistance of a new screw soil nail in residual soil," Can. Geotech. J., vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 609–619, 2018, doi: 10.1139/cgj-2017-0048.

H. Y. Hu, Y. C. Zhang, and C. Y. Chen, "Discussion on the Displacement and Stability of the Soil Nailing," in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2020, vol. 510, no. 5, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/510/5/052012.

F. A. Villalobos and S. A. Villalobos, "Effect of nail spacing on the global stability of soil nailed walls using limit equilibrium and finite element methods," Transp. Geotech., vol. 26, 2021, doi:

J. Garzón-Roca, V. Capa, F. J. Torrijo, and J. Company, "Designing Soil-Nailed Walls Using the Amherst Wall Considering Problematic Issues during Execution and Service Life," Int. J. Geomech., vol. 19, no. 7, p. 05019006, 2019, doi: 10.1061/(asce)gm.1943-5622.0001453.

M. Ben Ouakkass, L. Ouadif, L. Bahi, and A. Akhssas, "Predictive risk mapping related to the shrink-swell of clays under the railway track in the Settat plateau (Morocco)," ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 1–10, 2019.

D. A. Mangnejo, S. J. Oad, S. A. Kalhoro, S. Ahmed, F. H. Laghari, and Z. A. Siyal, "Numerical Analysis of Soil Slope Stabilization by Soil Nailing Technique," Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 9, no. 4, 2019, doi: 10.48084/etasr.2859.

M. Sharma, M. Samanta, and S. Sarkar, "Soil nailing: An effective slope stabilization technique," in Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research, vol. 50, 2019, pp. 173–199.

T. Yang, J. F. Zou, and Q. J. Pan, "Three-dimensional seismic stability of slopes reinforced by soil nails," Comput. Geotech., vol. 127, no. February, p. 103768, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2020.103768.

V. Nappa, R. Ventini, V. Ciotta, D. Asprone, F. De Silva, and S. Fabozzi, “A new frontier of BIM process: Geotechnical BIM,†2019, doi: 10.32075/17ECSMGE-2019-0682.

M. H. Mohamed, M. Ahmed, J. Mallick, and P. V. Hoa, "An experimental study of a nailed soil slope: Effects of surcharge loading and nails characteristics," Appl. Sci., vol. 11, no. 11, 2021, doi: 10.3390/app11114842.

M. Sabermahani and H. Nuri, "Studying the effect of geometrical nail layout on the performance of soil-nailed walls: Physical and numerical modeling," Acta Geodyn. Geomater., vol. 18, no. 1, 2021, doi: 10.13168/AGG.2021.0003.

M. Alemyparvin, "Deformations Analysis and Finite Element Numerical Modeling of Soil' s Excavations Improved by Soil Nailing," vol. 16, no. December, pp. 395–401, 2020.

J.-P. GIGAN, “Applications du clouage en soutènement–Paramètres de conception et de dimensionnement des ouvrages,†. Bulletin de Liaison des Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussées. Vol 143., pp. 51–64, 1986.



Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development