Design of Robot Manipulators and Functional Classification of Medical Robots

R Swarnalatha, Gayathri Menon


This paper intended to conduct research based on medical robotics, which fundamentally couple information to enhance the performance of human abilities significantly, in this case, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, or simply helping differently-abled people perform daily tasks. This research work aims to comprehend principal concepts in medical robotic designing, analysis, and real-time control of robotic systems within the context of medical applications. Extensive research on telerobotic systems and their applications in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery/telesurgery is a major aspect of this research. The core aspects focus on the application, functionality, and theoretical aspects of interactive robotic technologies in medicine. Surgical, physiotherapy, and neuro-rehabilitative robotic systems are significant outlooks of medical robotics. Technological aspects, such as instrumentation, mechanisms, imaging, and simulation, were conducted using MATLAB and Webot software. Simulations using software usage was focused on designing robotic medical models and differentiated using functional classification. Three-dimensional robots with better dexterity and degree of freedom were simulated using Webot software. This research work proposes new approaches of augmented reality aiding medical surgeries whereby three-dimensional visualization of organs is detailed as the future of medical applications. Robotic Kinematics and algorithms are studied in detail when designing these robots on CAD/CAM. Comparative studies based on already implemented medical robots were also conducted. The functionality, drawbacks, ethical issues, and consents of patients are comprehended in detail in this research.


Tele-robotics; neuro-rehabilitative robotics; functional classification; medical robotics.

Full Text:



F. Piltan, A. Taghizadegan, and N. B. Sulaiman, “Modeling and control of four degrees of Freedom surgical ROBOT manipulator Using MATLAB/SIMULINK,†International Journal of Hybrid Information Technology, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 47–78, 2015

J.-G. Jiang, Z.-M. Bi, L. Wang, H.-Y. Hu, W. Dong, and L.-T. Yu, “Medical robotics,†Advances in Mechanical Engineering, vol. 7, no. 7, p. 168781401559323, 2015.

R. Yasin et al., "Evaluation of Hybrid Control and Palpation Assistance for Situational Awareness in Telemanipulated Task Execution", IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 31-43, 2021. Available: 10.1109/tmrb.2020.3042992.

D. Pisla, A. Szilaghyi, C. Vaida and N. Plitea, "Kinematics and workspace modeling of a new hybrid robot used in minimally invasive surgery", Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 463-474, 2013. Available: 10.1016/j.rcim.2012.09.016.

R. Taylor, "A Perspective on Medical Robotics", Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 1652-1664, 2006. Available: 10.1109/jproc.2006.880669.

F. Alambeigi, S. Behzadipour, G. Vossoughi and F. Farahmand, "Simulation and control of a multi-DOF laparoscopic tele-surgery system in virtual reality", The 2nd International Conference on Control, Instrumentation and Automation, 2011. Available: 10.1109/icciautom.2011.6356808

M. Li, D. Mazilu, A. Kapoor and K. A., "MRI Compatible Robot Systems for Medical Intervention", Advances in Robot Manipulators, 2010. Available: 10.5772/9675

E. Loh, "Medicine and the rise of the robots: a qualitative review of recent advances of artificial intelligence in health", BMJ Leader, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 59-63, 2018. Available: 10.1136/leader-2018-000071.

M. Kalyoncu, "Mathematical modelling and dynamic response of a multi-straight-line path tracing flexible robot manipulator with rotating-prismatic joint", Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1087-1098, 2008. Available: 10.1016/j.apm.2007.02.032.

K. Lee et al., "MR Safe Robotic Manipulator for MRI-Guided Intracardiac Catheterization", IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 586-595, 2018. Available: 10.1109/tmech.2018.2801787.

Sarvagya Vaish “ Forward Kinematics using Oracos KDL†March 10 2017 Delhi, India [online] Accessed on 28 August 2021

T. Dahl and M. Boulos, "Robots in Health and Social Care: A Complementary Technology to Home Care and Telehealthcare?", Robotics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-21, 2013. Available: 10.3390/robotics3010001.

Eric Hiob†Robotics: Using Transformation Matrices to change from one coordinate system to another in Robotics(1998)â€June 11 1998,London UK(online) Accessed on 28 August 2021

T. van Mulken et al., "First-in-human robotic supermicrosurgery using a dedicated microsurgical robot for treating breast cancer-related lymphedema: a randomized pilot trial", Nature Communications, vol. 11, no. 1, 2020. Available: 10.1038/s41467-019-14188-w.

Y. Ai, B. Pan, Y. Fu and S. Wang, "Control system design for a novel minimally invasive surgical robot", Computer Assisted Surgery, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 45-53, 2016. Available: 10.1080/24699322.2016.1240313.

Yu, "Anomaly Intrusion Detection Based upon Anomalous Events and Soft Computing Technique", International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 450-453, 2015. Available: 10.18178/ijmlc.2015.5.6.550.

R. Beasley, "Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions", Journal of Robotics, vol. 2012, pp. 1-14, 2012. Available: 10.1155/2012/401613.

G. Shaffer, "Applying a Contextual Integrity Framework to Privacy Policies for Smart Technologies", SSRN Electronic Journal, 2020. Available: 10.2139/ssrn.3742916.

Y. Shivraj Narayan, S. Anand Kumar, K. Jaya Prakash, B. Satyanarayana and S. Koteswari, "Functional testing and evaluation of additively manufactured hand drill body prototype", Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 45, pp. 3585-3595, 2021. Available: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.12.1108.

N. Terry, "Of Regulating Healthcare AI and Robots", SSRN Electronic Journal, 2019. Available: 10.2139/ssrn.3321379.

E. Hempel et al., "An MRI-Compatible Surgical Robot for Precise Radiological Interventions", Computer Aided Surgery, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 180-191, 2003. Available: 10.3109/10929080309146052.

A. Okamura, M. Mataric and H. Christensen, "Medical and Healthcare Robotics", IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 26-37, 2010. Available: 10.1109/mra.2010.937861.

E. Oña, R. Cano-de la Cuerda, P. Sánchez-Herrera, C. Balaguer and A. Jardón, "A Review of Robotics in Neurorehabilitation: Towards an Automated Process for Upper Limb", Journal of Healthcare Engineering, vol. 2018, pp. 1-19, 2018. Available: 10.1155/2018/9758939.

P. Garcia et al., "Trauma Pod: a semi-automated telerobotic surgical system", The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 136-146, 2009. Available: 10.1002/rcs.238.

B. Fei, W. Ng, S. Chauhan and C. Kwoh, "The safety issues of medical robotics", Reliability Engineering & System Safety, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 183-192, 2001. Available: 10.1016/s0951-8320(01)00037-0.

Yulun Wang, S. Butner and A. Darzi, "The Developing Market for Medical Robotics", Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 1763-1771, 2006. Available: 10.1109/jproc.2006.880711.

G. Yang et al., "Medical robotics—Regulatory, ethical, and legal considerations for increasing levels of autonomy", Science Robotics, vol. 2, no. 4, p. eaam8638, 2017. Available: 10.1126/scirobotics.aam8638.

G. Dogangil, B. Davies and F. Rodriguez y Baena, "A review of medical robotics for minimally invasive soft tissue surgery", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, vol. 224, no. 5, pp. 653-679, 2009. Available: 10.1243/09544119jeim591

G. Yang, C. Riviere, G. Dagnino and P. Fiorini, "Guest Editorial Surgical Robotics: Clinical Challenges and Levels of Autonomy", IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 105-107, 2020. Available: 10.1109/tmrb.2020.2990783.

G. Ferrigno et al., "Medical Robotics", IEEE Pulse, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 55-61, 2011. Available: 10.1109/mpul.2011.941523.

D. Elson, K. Cleary, P. Dupont, R. Merrifield and C. Riviere, "Medical Robotics", Annals of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 1433-1436, 2018. Available: 10.1007/s10439-018-02127-7

O. Erin, M. Boyvat, M. Tiryaki, M. Phelan and M. Sitti, "Magnetic Resonance Imaging System–Driven Medical Robotics", Advanced Intelligent Systems, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 1900110, 2020. Available: 10.1002/aisy.201900110.

D. Thiel, P. Francis, M. Heckman and H. Winfield, "Prospective Evaluation of Factors Affecting Operating Time in a Residency/Fellowship Training Program Incorporating Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy", Journal of Endourology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1331-1338, 2008. Available: 10.1089/end.2008.0023.

Hsiao, J. Chang and C. Cheng, "Soft medical robotics: clinical and biomedical applications, challenges, and future directions", Advanced Robotics, vol.33 no.21,pp.1099-1111,2019.Available: 10.1080/01691864.2019.1679251

Troccaz and Y. Delnondedieu, "Semi-active guiding systems in surgery. A two-dof prototype of the passive arm with dynamic constraints (PADyC)", Mechatronics, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 399-421, 1996. Available: 10.1016/0957-4158(96)00003-7.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development