Degradation of Imidacloprid Residue in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Using Advanced Oxidation Processes and Its Analyzing by Spectrophotometer and HPLC

Safni Safni, Ollinovela Trisna, Syukri Syukri


Imidacloprid is a synthetic pesticide used to kill and control insects by cabbage farmers. Consuming cabbage contaminated with imidacloprid can cause health problems such as chronic kidney, reproductive disorders and cancer. The parameters for degradation of imidacloprid residue in cabbage were processing time (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min), water volume (50, 100, 150, and 200 mL), and sample mass (25, 50, 75, and 100 g). Degradation of imidacloprid residue in cabbage using Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) methods such as ozonolysis, sonolysis, and sonozolysis were compared. Methods of ozonolysis, sonolysis, and sonozolysis have performed using an ozonicator (ozone dose: 400 mg h-1), sonicator (35 kHz), and a combination of both. Using spectrophotometers UV-Vis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) measurements showed a decrease in imidacloprid concentration after degradation. The degradation percentage of the imidacloprid residue with ozonolysis was higher than that of sonolysis and sonozolysis. The percentage of imidacloprid degradation by ozonolysis in 50 g cabbage at 100 mL of water increased to 82.53% for 15 min. The HPLC chromatogram showed no new peaks that formed after degradation. The imidacloprid residue’s degradation kinetics were then investigated. For all AOPs methods, the kinetic analysis demonstrated that imidacloprid degradation fit within a first-order kinetic model. The kinetic data showed that ozonolysis degraded imidacloprid with a half-life (t1/2) of 15.22 min, shorter than sonolysis and sonozolysis.


Cabbage; imidacloprid; AOPs; ozonolysis; spectrophotometer; HPLC.

Full Text:



F. P. Carvalho, ‘Pesticides, environment, and food safety’, Food Energy Secur., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 48–60, 2017.

S. Mostafalou and M. Abdollahi, ‘Pesticides: an update of human exposure and toxicity’, Arch. Toxicol., vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 549–599, 2017.

F. J. R. Paumgartten, ‘Pesticides and public health in Brazil’, Curr. Opin. Toxicol., vol. 22, pp. 7–11, 2020.

A. M. Aloizou et al., ‘Pesticides, cognitive functions and dementia: A review’, Toxicol. Lett., vol. 326, pp. 31–51, 2020.

J. R. Richardson, V. Fitsanakis, R. H. S. Westerink, and A. G. Kanthasamy, ‘Neurotoxicity of pesticides’, Acta Neuropathol., vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 343–362, 2019.

World Health Organization (WHO), The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification. 2019.

Z. Li and A. Jennings, ‘Worldwide regulations of standard values of pesticides for human health risk control: A review’, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 14, no. 7, p. 1, 2017.

SNI 7313, Maksimum limit of pesticide residues on indonesian agricultural products. 2008.

U. Sahin, M. Ekinci, S. Ors, M. Turan, S. Yildiz, and E. Yildirim, ‘Effects of individual and combined effects of salinity and drought on physiological, nutritional and biochemical properties of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)’, Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam)., vol. 240, no. June, pp. 196–204, 2018.

D. Šamec, I. Pavlović, and B. Salopek-Sondi, ‘White cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba): botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological overview’, Phytochem. Rev., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 117–135, 2017.

Y. Xu et al., ‘A comparative evaluation of nutritional properties, antioxidant capacity and physical characteristics of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitate var L.) subjected to different drying methods’, Food Chem., vol. 309, pp. 1–8, 2020.

C. Novotny, V. Schulzova, A. Krmela, J. Hajslova, K. Svobodova, and M. Koudela, ‘Ascorbic acid and glucosinolate levels in new czech cabbage cultivars: Effect of production system and fungal infection’, Molecules, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 2–12, 2018.

B. Lozowicka, M. Jankowska, I. Hrynko, and P. Kaczynski, ‘Removal of 16 pesticide residues from strawberries by washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling’, Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 188, no. 1, p. 1, 2016.

A. Heshmati, M. Hamidi, and A. Nili-Ahmadabadi, ‘Effect of storage, washing, and cooking on the stability of five pesticides in edible fungi of Agaricus bisporus: A degradation kinetic study’, Food Sci. Nutr., vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 3993–4000, 2019.

T. Yang, J. Doherty, B. Zhao, A. J. Kinchla, J. M. Clark, and L. He, ‘Effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in removing pesticide residues on and in apples’, J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 65, no. 44, pp. 9744–9752, 2017.

S. Ruengprapavut, T. Sophonnithiprasert, and N. Pongpoungphet, ‘The effectiveness of chemical solutions on the removal of carbaryl residues from cucumber and chili presoaked in carbaryl using the HPLC technique’, Food Chem., vol. 309, pp. 1–4, 2020.

R. A. Putri, S. Safni, N. Jamarun, and U. Septiani, ‘Kinetics study and degradation pathway of methyl orange photodegradation in the presence of C-N-codoped TiO2 catalyst’, Egypt. J. Chem., vol. 63, no. Part 2, pp. 563–575, 2020.

A. El Nemr, M. A. Hassaan, and F. F. Madkour, ‘Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) for Detoxification of Acid Red 17 Dye Solution and Degradation Mechanism’, Environ. Process., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 95–113, 2018.

E. M. Cuerda-Correa, M. F. Alexandre-Franco, and C. Fernández-González, ‘Advanced oxidation processes for the removal of antibiotics from water. An overview’, Water (Switzerland), vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–51, 2020.

H. Wang, J. Zhan, L. Gao, G. Yu, S. Komarneni, and Y. Wang, ‘Kinetics and mechanism of thiamethoxam abatement by ozonation and ozone-based advanced oxidation processes’, J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 390, pp. 1–11, 2020.

Khoiriah, Safni, Syukri, and J. Gunlazuardi, ‘The operational parameters effect on photocatalytic degradation of diazinon using carbon and nitrogen modified TiO2’, Rasayan J., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1919–1925, 2020.

X. Jin, S. Peldszus, and P. M. Huck, ‘Reaction kinetics of selected micropollutants in ozonation and advanced oxidation processes’, Water Res., vol. 46, no. 19, p. 6519, 2012.

E. Kudlek, ‘Decomposition of contaminants of emerging concern in advanced oxidation processes’, Water (Switzerland), vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1–18, 2018.

S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Deng, and N. Gao, ‘Influencing Factors and Kinetic Studies of Imidacloprid Degradation by Ozonation Influencing Factors and Kinetic Studies of Imidacloprid Degradation by Ozonation’, Environ. Technol., vol. 40, no. 1, p. 1, 2018.

R. Flyunt et al., ‘Determination of •OH, O2•- , and Hydroperoxide Yields in Ozone Reactions in Aqueous Solution’, J. Phys. Chem. B, vol. 107, p. 7242, 2003.

Khoiriah, Safni, Syukri, and J. Gunlazuardi, ‘Photocatalytic ozonation using C,N-codoped TiO2 for diazinon degradation’, J. Chem. Technol. Metall., vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2120–2127, 2020.

A. L. Patil, P. N. Patil, and P. R. Gogate, ‘Degradation of imidacloprid containing wastewaters using ultrasound based treatment strategies’, Ultrason. Sonochem., vol. 21, no. 5, p. 1778, 2014.

K. Ikehata and M. G. El-Din, ‘Aqueous Pesticide Degradation by Ozonation and Ozone-Based Advanced Oxidation Processes: A Review (Part II)’, Ozone Sci. Eng., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 173–191, 2005.

A. Simões, M. Miranda, C. Cardoso, F. Veiga, and C. Vitorino, ‘Rheology by design: A regulatory tutorial for analytical method validation’, Pharmaceutics, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1–27, 2020.

P. Thanekar, M. Panda, and P. R. Gogate, ‘Degradation of carbamazepine using hydrodynamic cavitation combined with advanced oxidation processes’, Ultrason. Sonochem., vol. 40, pp. 567–576, 2018.

P. Sintuya, K. Narkprasom, S. Jaturonglumlert, N. Whangchai, D. Peng-Ont, and J. Varith, ‘Effect of Gaseous Ozone Fumigation on Organophosphate Pesticide Degradation of Dried Chilies’, Ozone Sci. Eng., vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 473–481, 2018.

H. Zhan et al., ‘Kinetics and novel degradation pathway of permethrin in Acinetobacter baumannii ZH-14’, Front. Microbiol., vol. 9, pp. 1–12, 2018.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development