Functionalization of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes–Silver Nanoparticle (MWCNTs-AgNPs) as a Drug Delivery System for Ibuprofen

Murni Handayani, Geolita Ihsantia Ning Asih, Triana Kusumaningsih, Yuni Kusumastuti, - Rochmadi


Nanoparticle utilization for the prevention, diagnostics, and treatment of diseases is widely known as one of the medicine branches, nanomedicine. The ability to penetrate the higher space between cells and cell walls makes nanoparticles have the potential to be used as a drug delivery system (DDS). Furthermore, various techniques can be combined with nanoparticles due to their flexibility. AgNPs are one of the interesting nanoparticles to be developed into DDS. It is because they can improve antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, and physicochemical properties. In addition, AgNPs have biocompatibility that can improve drug delivery capability. On the other hand, carbon-based nanomaterials such as MWCNTs have unique properties that can be potentially used as composite materials for application as DDS. Therefore, to increase the ability of DDS, the in-situ synthesis of MWCNT-AgNPs nanocomposites was carried out. UV-Vis observed the absorption peak of the nanocomposite. The characterization of the crystal structure was performed using XRD. FESEM-EDX conducted the determination of the morphology of nanocomposite and the chemical composition. The distribution of AgNPs on the MWCNTs surface was performed by TEM. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the vibration of the MWCNT-AgNPs. Drug Loading was performed using UV-Vis measurements. The results showed that MWCNT-AgNPs as a DDS are successfully created in the drug loading stage. Drug loading stage properties are increased with the increasing loading time of Ibuprofen on MWCNT-AgNPs. The optimum percentage of drug loading for Ibuprofen by MWCNTs-AgNPs was 43.7% in a contact time of 27 hours.


Multi-walled carbon nanotubes; silver nanoparticles; drug delivery system (DDS); ibuprofen.

Full Text:



M. A. Badea, M. Prodana, A. Dinischiotu, C. Crihana, D. Ionita, and M. Balas, “Cisplatin loaded multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce resistance in triple negative breast cancer cells,” Pharmaceutics, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1–25, 2018, doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics10040228.

I. Khan, K. Saeed, and I. Khan, “Nanoparticles: Properties, applications and toxicities,” Arab. J. Chem., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 908–931, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.011.

R. Gupta and H. Xie, “Nanoparticles in Daily Life: Applications, Toxicity, and Regulations,” J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 209–230, 2018, doi: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2018026009.

M. Manzano and M. Vallet-Regí, “Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery,” Adv. Funct. Mater., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 3–5, 2020, doi: 10.1002/adfm.201902634.

I. X. Yin, J. Zhang, I. S. Zhao, M. L. Mei, Q. Li, and C. H. Chu, “The antibacterial mechanism of silver nanoparticles and its application in dentistry,” Int. J. Nanomedicine, vol. 15, pp. 2555–2562, 2020, doi: 10.2147/IJN.S246764.

L. Hajiaghababaei, M. Eslambolipour, A. Badiei, M. R. Ganjali, and G. M. Ziarani, “Controlled release of anticancer drug using o-phenylenediamine functionalized SBA-15 as a novel nanocarrier,” Chem. Pap., no. 0123456789, pp. 1–10, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s11696-020-01422-9.

N. Aminu, I. Bello, N. M. Umar, N. Tanko, A. Aminu, and M. M. Audu, “The influence of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems in drug therapy,” J. Drug Deliv. Sci. Technol., vol. 60, no. July, p. 101961, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jddst.2020.101961.

D. Lombardo, M. A. Kiselev, and M. T. Caccamo, “Smart Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Application: Development of Versatile Nanocarrier Platforms in Biotechnology and Nanomedicine,” J. Nanomater., vol. 2019, pp. 1–26, 2019, doi: 10.1155/2019/3702518.

Y. Ye, X. Mao, J. Xu, J. Kong, and X. Hu, “Functional graphene oxide nanocarriers for drug delivery,” Int. J. Polym. Sci., vol. 2019, pp. 1–7, 2019, doi: 10.1155/2019/8453493.

N. Tyagi, Y. H. Song, and R. De, “Recent progress on biocompatible nanocarrier-based genistein delivery systems in cancer therapy,” J. Drug Target., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 394–407, 2019, doi: 10.1080/1061186X.2018.1514040.

J. Zhao, Y. Wang, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, B. Yan, and L. Wang, “Smart nanocarrier based on PEGylated hyaluronic acid for deacetyl mycoepoxydience: High stability with enhanced bioavailability and efficiency,” Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 203, no. June 2018, pp. 356–368, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.09.071.

E. Sánchez-López et al., “Metal-based nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents: An overview,” Nanomaterials, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 1–39, 2020, doi: 10.3390/nano10020292.

X. Liu, P. Gao, J. Du, X. Zhao, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Long-term anti-inflammatory efficacy in intestinal anastomosis in mice using silver nanoparticle-coated suture,” J. Pediatr. Surg., vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 2083–2087, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.08.026.

M. Oves et al., “Antimicrobial and anticancer activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from the root hair extract of Phoenix dactylifera,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 89, pp. 429–443, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.03.035.

M. S. Samuel, S. Jose, E. Selvarajan, T. Mathimani, and A. Pugazhendhi, “Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Application for cytotoxicity effect on A549 cell line and photocatalytic degradation of p-nitrophenol,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol., vol. 202, p. 111642, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111642.

A. Pugazhendhi, T. N. J. I. Edison, I. Karuppusamy, and B. Kathirvel, “Inorganic nanoparticles: A potential cancer therapy for human welfare,” Int. J. Pharm., vol. 539, no. 1–2, pp. 104–111, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.01.034.

H. Choudhury et al., “Silver nanoparticles: Advanced and promising technology in diabetic wound therapy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 112, no. February, p. 110925, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.110925.

W. Zhu, H. Huang, Y. Dong, C. Han, X. Sui, and B. Jian, “Multi‑walled carbon nanotube‑based systems for improving the controlled release of insoluble drug dipyridamole,” Exp. Ther. Med., pp. 4610–4616, 2019, doi: 10.3892/etm.2019.7510.

A. I. A. Abd El-Mageed, M. Handayani, Z. Chen, T. Inose, and T. Ogawa, “Assignment of the Absolute-Handedness Chirality of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Organic Molecule Supramolecular Structures,” Chem. - A Eur. J., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1941–1948, 2019, doi: 10.1002/chem.201804832.

B. Ribeiro, R. B. Pipes, M. L. Costa, and E. C. Botelho, “Electrical and rheological percolation behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced poly(phenylene sulfide) composites,” J. Compos. Mater., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 199–208, 2017, doi: 10.1177/0021998316644848.

H. Sadegh et al., “Synthesis of MWCNT-COOH-Cysteamine composite and its application for dye removal,” J. Mol. Liq., vol. 215, pp. 221–228, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.molliq.2015.12.042.

S. Paliwal, K. Pandey, S. Pawar, H. Joshi, and N. Bisht, “A review on carbon nanotubes: As a nano carrier drug delivery system,” Indian J. Pharm. Sci., vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 766–772, 2020, doi: 10.36468/pharmaceutical-sciences.704.

J. Simon, E. Flahaut, and M. Golzio, “Overview of carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications,” Materials (Basel)., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1–21, 2019, doi: 10.3390/ma12040624.

A. Kavosi et al., “The toxicity and therapeutic effects of single-and multi-wall carbon nanotubes on mice breast cancer,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2018, doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-26790-x.

R. A. Sobh, H. E. S. Nasr, and W. S. Mohamed, “Formulation and in vitro characterization of anticancer drugs encapsulated chitosan/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Pharm. Sci., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 32–40, 2019, doi: 10.7324/JAPS.2019.90805.

Z. Khatti, S. M. Hashemianzadeh, and S. A. Shafiei, “A molecular study on drug delivery system based on carbon nanotube compared to silicon carbide nanotube for encapsulation of platinum-based anticancer drug,” Adv. Pharm. Bull., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 163–167, 2018, doi: 10.15171/apb.2018.020.

Q. Yang et al., “Exploiting the synergetic effects of graphene and carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of bitumen composites,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 172, no. October, pp. 402–413, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2020.10.020.

M. Jagannatham, P. Chandran, S. Sankaran, P. Haridoss, N. Nayan, and S. R. Bakshi, “Tensile properties of carbon nanotubes reinforced aluminum matrix composites: A review,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 160, pp. 14–44, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2020.01.007.

H. He, L. A. Pham-Huy, P. Dramou, D. Xiao, P. Zuo, and C. Pham-Huy, “Carbon nanotubes: Applications in pharmacy and medicine,” Biomed Res. Int., vol. 2013, pp. 1–12, 2013, doi: 10.1155/2013/578290.

N. M. Latiff, X. Fu, D. K. Mohamed, A. Veksha, M. Handayani, and G. Lisak, “Carbon based copper (II) phthalocyanine catalysts for electrochemical CO2 reduction: Effect of carbon support on electrocatalytic activity,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 168, pp. 245–253, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2020.06.066.

H. Hu, T. Zhang, S. Yuan, and S. Tang, “Functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with phenylenediamine for enhanced CO2 adsorption,” Adsorption, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 73–85, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s10450-016-9820-y.

R. S. Singh and K. Chauhan, Functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for enzyme immobilization, 1st ed., vol. 630. Elsevier Inc., 2020.

E. A. Mwafy and A. M. Mostafa, “Multi walled carbon nanotube decorated cadmium oxide nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid media,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 111, no. July 2018, pp. 249–254, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2018.09.055.

N. Sezer and M. Koç, “Oxidative acid treatment of carbon nanotubes,” Surfaces and Interfaces, vol. 14, pp. 1–8, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.surfin.2018.11.001.

L. Shahriary, R. Nair, S. Sabharwal, and A. A. Athawale, “One-step synthesis of Ag-reduced graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes for enhanced antibacterial activities,” New J. Chem., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 4583–4590, 2015, doi: 10.1039/c4nj02275k.

A. Subagio, E. Prihastanti, and Ngadiwiyana, “Application of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for growth enhancement of mustard seed germination,” Indones. J. Chem., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 120–129, 2020, doi: 10.22146/ijc.41340.

N. X. Dinh, N. Van Quy, T. Q. Huy, and A. T. Le, “Decoration of silver nanoparticles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes: Antibacterial mechanism and ultrastructural analysis,” J. Nanomater., vol. 2015, no. i, pp. 1–11, 2015, doi: 10.1155/2015/814379.

Y. Yusof, M. I. Zaidi, and M. R. Johan, “Enhanced Structural, Thermal, and Electrical Properties of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Hybridized with Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Nanomater., vol. 2016, pp. 1–9, 2016, doi: 10.1155/2016/6141496.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development