Surface Performance of Biochar from Young Coconut Shells (Cocos Nucifera) for Cd2+ Ion Adsorption

Alam Anshary, Mery Napitupulu


Using agricultural waste such as young coconut shells could reduce environmental pollution and support the zero-waste principle. This study aims to prepare and analyze biochar from young coconut shells and determine adsorption ability. The biochar was prepared by pyrolysis with varying temperatures, 400oC, 500oC, and 600oC, and the resulting yield was 41.21%, 32.65%, and 29.79%, respectively. The biochar produced has met the Indonesian National Standard SNI 06-3730-1995 for moisture, ash, and the content of the amount of bound carbon in the biochar. Pore morphological characteristics and biochar elements were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Disperse Spectrophotometry (SEM) -EDS at 300x, 1000x, 3000x, and 10000x magnification. The pore size was 50 m, 10 m, 5 m, and 1 m with predominantly mass of element C 78.63%, atom C 85.18%. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) measured the concentration of cadmium ions adsorbed using two variables; pH variable and biochar weigh variable. The absorption capacity in the pH variation indicates an increase in pH will increase the concentration of cadmium ions adsorbed, while the weight variation shows the fluctuated trend after 500 mg. The study showed an optimum biochar weight of 500 mg adsorbed 99.99% of cadmium ion. The pore size and the resulting carbon content, and the adsorption power of cadmium ions indicate that the biochar from young coconut shells has the potential to be developed industrially into activated carbon, which can be used as an adsorbent for industrial and domestic wastewater.


Biochar; young coconut shells; cadmium; SEM-EDS; AAS.

Full Text:



BPS-Sulteng, “Sulawesi Tengah in Figure 2020,” Sulteng, 2020. Accessed: Nov. 06, 2020. [Online]. Available:

L. A. Nunes, M. L. S. Silva, J. Z. Gerber, and R. de A. Kalid, "Waste green coconut shells: Diagnosis of the disposal and applications for use in other products," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 255, p. 120169, May 2020.

D. DasSharma, S. Samanta, D. N. K. S, and G. Halder, "A mechanistic insight into enrofloxacin sorptive affinity of chemically activated carbon engineered from green coconut shell," Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 8, no. 5, p. 104140, Oct. 2020.

J. A. Caladcad et al., "Determining Philippine coconut maturity level using machine learning algorithms based on acoustic signal," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 172, p. 105327, May 2020.

J. Plaimart, K. Acharya, W. Mrozik, R. J. Davenport, S. Vinitnantharat, and D. Werner, "Coconut husk biochar amendment enhances nutrient retention by suppressing nitrification in agricultural soil following anaerobic digestate application," Environmental Pollution, vol. 268, p. 115684, Jan. 2021.

M. D. Bispo et al., "Production of activated biochar from coconut fiber for the removal of organic compounds from phenolic," Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 2743–2750, Apr. 2018.

N. Gunasekar, C. G. Mohan, R. Prakash, and L. Saravana Kumar, "Utilization of coconut shell pyrolysis oil diesel blends in a direct injection diesel engine," Materials Today: Proceedings, p. S2214785320315236, Mar. 2020.

K. Vinukumar, A. Azhagurajan, S. C. Vettivel, N. Vedaraman, and A. Haiter Lenin, "Biodiesel with nano additives from coconut shell for decreasing emissions in diesel engines," Fuel, vol. 222, pp. 180–184, Jun. 2018.

S. Sinsinwar, M. K. Sarkar, K. R. Suriya, P. Nithyanand, and V. Vadivel, "Use of agricultural waste (coconut shell) for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their antibacterial activity against selected human pathogens," Microbial Pathogenesis, vol. 124, pp. 30–37, Nov. 2018.

R. Tomar, K. Kishore, H. Singh Parihar, and N. Gupta, "A comprehensive study of waste coconut shell aggregate as raw material in concrete," Materials Today: Proceedings, p. S2214785320375064, Nov. 2020.

S. Kiran Totla et al., "Analysis of helmet with coconut shell as the outer layer," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 32, pp. 365–373, 2020.

K. D. M. S. P. K. Kumarasinghe, G. R. A. Kumara, R. M. G. Rajapakse, D. N. Liyanage, and K. Tennakone, "Activated coconut shell charcoal based counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells," Organic Electronics, vol. 71, pp. 93–97, Aug. 2019.

N. Cheng et al., "Adsorption of emerging contaminants from water and wastewater by modified biochar: A review," Environmental Pollution, vol. 273, p. 116448, Mar. 2021.

J. Shin et al., "Competitive adsorption of pharmaceuticals in lake water and wastewater effluent by pristine and NaOH-activated biochars from spent coffee wastes: Contribution of hydrophobic and π-π interactions," Environmental Pollution, vol. 270, p. 116244, Feb. 2021.

M. Napitupulu, Muhammad Al-Gifary, and Daud K Walanda, "Adsorption of Cd(II) by carbon prepared from peels and stems of kepok banana (musa paradisiaca formatypica)," Cellulose Chem. Technol, vol. 53, no. 3–4, pp. 387–394, 2019.

M. Napitupulu, D. K. Walanda, and M. Simatupang, "Utilization of red fruit's peel (freycinetia arborea gaudich) as biochar for lead (Pb) adsorption," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 1434, p. 012033, Jan. 2020.

D. K. Walanda, M. Napitupulu, B. Hamzah, and K. Panessai, "The capacity of biocharcoal prepared from sawah lettuce plants (limnocharis flava) as adsorbent of lead ions," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 1434, p. 012036, Jan. 2020.

M. Napitupulu, D. K. Walanda, Y. Natakusuma, M. Basir, and Mahfudz, "Capacity of Adsorption of Cadmium (II) Ion by Bio-charcoal from Durian Barks," JSST, vol. 34, no. 1–2, pp. 30–36, Jun. 2018.

D. K. Walanda, M. Napitupulu, and Irfan, "Adsorption characteristics of copper ions using biocharcoal derived from nutmeg shell," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 1763, no. 1, p. 012071, Jan. 2021.

J. Jeon, H. Kim, J. H. Park, S. Wi, and S. Kim, "Evaluation of thermal properties and acetaldehyde adsorption performance of sustainable composites using waste wood and biochar," Environmental Research, p. 110910, Feb. 2021.

M. M. Nazari, C. P. San, and N. A. Atan, "Combustion Performance of Biomass Composite Briquette from Rice Husk and Banana Residue," International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 455, Apr. 2019.

S. O. Abdelhadi, C. G. Dosoretz, G. Rytwo, Y. Gerchman, and H. Azaizeh, "Production of biochar from olive mill solid waste for heavy metal removal," Bioresource Technology, vol. 244, pp. 759–767, Nov. 2017.

"International Biochar Initiative." International Biochar Initiative. n.d. Accessed November 11, 2020.

Q.-C. Gong, L.-Q. He, L.-H. Zhang, and F. Duan, "Comparison of the NO heterogeneous reduction characteristics using biochars derived from three biomass with different lignin types," Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 105020, Feb. 2021.

H. R. Amaral et al., "Production of high-purity cellulose, cellulose acetate and cellulose-silica composite from babassu coconut shells," Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 210, pp. 127–134, Apr. 2019.

S. Liu et al., "The effect of several activated biochars on Cd immobilization and microbial community composition during in-situ remediation of heavy metal contaminated sediment," Chemosphere, vol. 208, pp. 655–664, Oct. 2018.

O. Oginni, K. Singh, G. Oporto, B. Dawson-Andoh, L. McDonald, and E. Sabolsky, "Effect of one-step and two-step H3PO4 activation on activated carbon characteristics," Bioresource Technology Reports, vol. 8, p. 100307, Dec. 2019.

M. Sánchez and F. Ruette, "Calculations of adsorption, coadsorption, diffusion, and reaction barriers of H atoms in the H2 formation on a positively charged coronene," Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 738, p. 136913, Jan. 2020.

S. Gupta, P. Krishnan, A. Kashani, and H. W. Kua, "Application of biochar from coconut and wood waste to reduce shrinkage and improve physical properties of silica fume-cement mortar," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 262, p. 120688, Nov. 2020.

Z. Haitao et al., "Effects of Preparation Conditions and Environmental Conditions on Rice-straw-biochar Adsorption of Urea," DTETR, no. APETC, Jun. 2017.

O. Oginni and K. Singh, "Influence of high carbonization temperatures on microstructural and physicochemical characteristics of herbaceous biomass derived biochars," Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 8, no. 5, p. 104169, Oct. 2020.

F. Cheng and X. Li, "Preparation and Application of Biochar-Based Catalysts for Biofuel Production," Catalysts, vol. 8, no. 9, p. 346, Aug. 2018.

S. A. Afolalu, O. D. Samuel, and O. M. Ikumapayi, "Development and characterization of nano- flux welding powder from calcined coconut shell ash admixture with FeO particles," Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 9232–9241, Jul. 2020.

M. U. Monir, F. Khatun, A. Abd Aziz, and D.-V. N. Vo, "Thermal treatment of tar generated during co-gasification of coconut shell and charcoal," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 256, p. 120305, May 2020.

T. M. E. Shareef and B. Zhao, "Review Paper: The Fundamentals of Biochar as a Soil Amendment Tool and Management in Agriculture Scope: An Overview for Farmers and Gardeners," JACEN, vol. 06, no. 01, pp. 38–61, 2017.

I. F. Nata, M. D. Putra, D. Nurandini, and C. Irawan, "Facile Strategy for Surface Functionalization of Corn Cob to Biocarbon and Its Catalytic Performance on Banana Peel Starch Hydrolysis," International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 1302, Aug. 2017.

S. Saraf, A. Singh, and B. G. Desai, "Estimation of Porosity and Pore size distribution from Scanning Electron Microscope image data of Shale samples: A case study on Jhuran formation of Kachchh Basin, India.," ASEG Extended Abstracts, vol. 2019, no. 1, pp. 1–3, Dec. 2019.

Porescale, "SEM Pore Image Analysis." (accessed Feb. 25, 2021).

Thermofisher, "Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy," Accessed: Feb. 25, 2021 [Online]. Available:

A. Godymchuk, I. Papina, E. Karepina, and D. Kuznetsov, "Behavior of ZnO nanoparticles in glycine solution: pH and size effect on aggregation and adsorption," Colloid and Interface Science Communications, vol. 39, p. 100318, Nov. 2020.

J. Manfrin, A. C. Gonçalves Jr., D. Schwantes, E. Conradi Jr., J. Zimmermann, and G. L. Ziemer, "Development of biochar and activated carbon from cigarettes wastes and their applications in Pb2+ adsorption," Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 104980, Apr. 2021.

H. Zhang et al., "Inhibitory role of citric acid in the adsorption of tetracycline onto biochars: Effects of solution pH and Cu2+," Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 595, p. 124731, Jun. 2020.

Desniorita, N. Nazir, - Novelina, and K. Sayuti, "Sustainable Design of Biorefinery Processes on Cocoa Pod: Optimization of Pectin Extraction Process with Variations of pH, Temperature, and Time," International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 9, no. 6, p. 2104, Dec. 2019.

Y. Wang and R. Liu, "Comparison of characteristics of twenty-one types of biochar and their ability to remove multi-heavy metals and methylene blue in solution," Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 160, pp. 55–63, Jun. 2017.

A. R. Abdul Rahim et al., "Effective carbonaceous desiccated coconut waste adsorbent for application of heavy metal uptakes by adsorption: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamics analysis," Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 142, p. 105805, Nov. 2020.

N. Bielejewska and R. Hertmanowski, "Surface characterization of nanocomposite Langmuir films based on liquid crystals and cellulose nanocrystals," Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 323, p. 115065, Feb. 2021.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development