Studies of Genetic and Morphological Characteristics of Indonesian Melon (Cucumis melo L. ‘Hikapel’) Germplasm

Adib Fakhruddin Yusuf, Budi Setiadi Daryono


The abundance of biodiversity in Indonesia is due to variations in germplasm and the diversity of plant species. Due to the high potential and demand for melons, it is necessary to innovate the assembly of superior varieties through a plant breeding approach. Here, we report the identification of phenotypic and genotypic traits with their phenetic relationships to determine the premium characteristics of the new melon cultivar - Hikapel. Observation of morphological characters using observational studies, qualitative descriptive, and quantitative identification at two cultivation locations: (1) Prambanan, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta, and (2) Pangalengan, Bandung Regency, West Java. Meanwhile, molecular character testing uses the ISSR markers UBC-807, UBC-808, UBC-810, UBC-812, and UBC-825. Morphological character data were analyzed using SPSS one-way ANOVA with LSD and Duncan tests. All data were grouped based on similarity values using cluster analysis of the multi-variate statistical package (MVSP 3.1) to determine the tested kinship relationship between the varieties. The results showed that Hikapel has several diagnostic characters as a new variety, namely: globular shape with cream-colored skin, aromatic fruit, small size, high sweetness level, and short harvest time. The stability and uniformity test results those characters of Hikapel can be maintained at various locations. This research can serve as basic data for developing melon varieties based on genomic data and aims as an initial step in the innovation of Indonesian Agriculture.


Stability; inter-simple sequence repeat; Hikapel; variety.

Full Text:



T. Osawa, “Perspectives on biodiversity informatics for ecology,” Ecol. Res., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 446–456, 2019, doi: 10.1111/1440-1703.12023.

J. Troudet, R. Vignes-Lebbe, P. Grandcolas, and F. Legendre, “The increasing disconnection of primary biodiversity data from specimens: How does it happen and how to handle it?,” Syst. Biol., vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1110–1119, 2018, doi: 10.1093/sysbio/syy044.

D. Brown, I. Van den Bergh, S. de Bruin, L. Machida, and J. van Etten, “Data synthesis for crop variety evaluation. A review,” Agron. Sustain. Dev., vol. 40, no. 4, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s13593-020-00630-7.

B. C. Y. Collard and D. J. Mackill, “Marker-assisted selection: An approach for precision plant breeding in the twenty-first century,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci., vol. 363, no. 1491, pp. 557–572, 2008, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2170.

J. C. Dawson and G. K. Healy, “Flavour Evaluation for Plant Breeders,” Plant Breed. Rev., vol. 41, pp. 215–261, 2017, doi: 10.1002/9781119414735.ch5.

H. Chikh-Rouhou, I. Tlili, R. Ilahy, T. R’Him, and R. Sta-Baba, “Fruit quality assessment and characterization of melon genotypes,” Int. J. Veg. Sci., vol. 00, no. 00, pp. 1–17, 2019, doi: 10.1080/19315260.2019.1692268.

D. Neocleous, G. Ntatsi, and D. Savvas, “Physiological, nutritional and growth responses of melon (Cucumis melo L.) to a gradual salinity built-up in recirculating nutrient solution,” J. Plant Nutr., vol. 40, no. 15, pp. 2168–2180, 2017, doi: 10.1080/01904167.2017.1346673.

A. P. Saputri, W. A. Wibowo, and B. S. Daryono, “Phenotypical Characters and Biochemical Compound of Cucurbitacin Melon (Cucumis melo L. ’Gama Melon Parfum’) Resulted from Breeding,” AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 2260, 2020, doi: 10.1063/5.0017615.

S. . Daryono, Budi Setiadi; Maryanto, Keanekaragaman dan Potensi Sumber Daya Genetik Melon. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 2017.

B. S. Daryono and K. T. Natsuaki, “Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers for detection of resistant cultivars of melon (cucumis melo) against cucurbitaceae viruses,” Acta Hortic., vol. 588, no. January 2001, pp. 321–329, 2002, doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.588.52.

B. S. Daryono and N. Nofriarno, “Pewarisan Karakter Fenotip Melon (Cucumis melo L. ‘Hikapel Aromatis’) Hasil Persilangan ♀ ‘Hikapel’ dengan ♂ ‘Hikadi Aromatik,’” Biosfera, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 44, 2018, doi: 10.20884/1.mib.2018.35.1.586.

P. Innark, T. Ratanachan, C. Khanobdee, S. Samipak, and C. Jantasuriyarat, “Downy mildew resistant/susceptible cucumber germplasm (Cucumis sativus L.) genetic diversity assessment using ISSR markers,” Crop Prot., vol. 60, pp. 56–61, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2014.03.003.

M. Akash, N. Awad, and M. Kasrawi, “Genetic diversity among snake melon landraces (Cucumis Melo Var. Flexuosus) using molecular descriptors,” Plant Biosyst., vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 206–212, 2020, doi: 10.1080/11263504.2019.1587536.

G. C. Luz, D. K. Strioto, C. A. Mangolin, and M. de F. P. S. Machado, “ISSR markers to assess genetic diversity of cultivated populations from artificial selection of stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) bertoni,” Breed. Sci., vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 508–514, 2020, doi: 10.1270/jsbbs.20014.

M. A. Sihaloho, D. S. Hanafia, E. Julianti, and M. Basyuni, “Morphological Characters of Local Origin Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) Fruits and Seeds from Central Tapanuli Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 213–222, 2021, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.11.1.11211.

M. Basyuni et al., “Cluster analysis of polyisoprenoid in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaves in different land-uses to find the possible cause of yield gap from planting materials,” Biodiversitas, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1492–1501, 2018, doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d190440.

G. Acquaah, Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding: Second Edition. 2012.

E. Křístková, A. Lebeda, V. Vinter, and O. Blahoušek, “Genetic resources of the genus Cucumis and their morphological description (English-Czech version),” Hortic. Sci., vol. 30, no. No. 1, pp. 14–42, 2018, doi: 10.17221/3812-hortsci.

C. Esteras, J. L. Rambla, G. Sánchez, A. Granell, and M. B. Picó, “Melon genetic resources characterization for rind volatile profile,” Agronomy, vol. 10, no. 10, 2020, doi: 10.3390/agronomy10101512.

N. Charoenchongsuk, D. Matsumoto, A. Itai, and H. Murayama, “Ripening characteristics and pigment changes in russeted pear fruit in response to ethylene and 1-MCP,” Horticulturae, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1–14, 2018, doi: 10.3390/horticulturae4030022.

A. S. Hermanns, X. Zhou, Q. Xu, Y. Tadmor, and L. Li, “Carotenoid Pigment Accumulation in Horticultural Plants,” Hortic. Plant J., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 343–360, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.hpj.2020.10.002.

A. F. Yusuf, W. A. Wibowo, A. S. Subiastuti, and B. S. Daryono, “Morphological Studies of Stability and Identity of Melon (Cucumis melo L.) ‘Hikapel’ and Comparative Cultivars,” AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 2260, no. September 2020, doi: 10.1063/5.0017606.

B. S. Daryono, A. S. Subiastuti, A. Fatmadanni, and D. Sartika, “Phenotypic and genetic stability of new indonesian melon cultivar (Cucumis melo L. ‘Melonia’) based on ISSR markers,” Biodiversitas, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1069–1075, 2019, doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d200419.

A. Etminan et al., “Genetic relationships and diversity among wild Salvia accessions revealed by ISSR and SCoT markers,” Biotechnol. Biotechnol. Equip., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 610–617, 2018, doi: 10.1080/13102818.2018.1447397.

A. Mondal, T. Pal, and K. K. De, “Fluorescent Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (F-ISSR) markers and capillary electrophoresis to assess genetic diversity and relatedness within commercial sugarcane varieties,” Int. J. Agric. Technol., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 717–730, 2018.

L. Ying Chang, S. Peng He, Q. Liu, J. Lin Xiang, and D. Feng Huang, “Quantifying muskmelon fruit attributes with A-TEP-based model and machine vision measurement,” J. Integr. Agric., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1369–1379, 2018, doi: 10.1016/S2095-3119(18)61912-4.

P. Fei Leng, T. Lübberstedt, and M. Liang Xu, “Genomics-assisted breeding – A revolutionary strategy for crop improvement,” J. Integr. Agric., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2674–2685, 2017, doi: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61813-6.

P. Sambo et al., “Hydroponic Solutions for Soilless Production Systems: Issues and Opportunities in a Smart Agriculture Perspective,” Front. Plant Sci., vol. 10, no. July 2019, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00923.

W. L. Ng and S. G. Tan, “Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers: Are we doing it right?,” ASM Sci. J., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 30–39, 2015.



Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development