Improved Rice Varieties Developed for High-Altitude Tropical Upland Areas of Indonesia

Aris Hairmansis, Yullianida Yullianida, Supartopo Supartopo, Amrizal Yusuf, Rini Hermanasari, Angelita Puji Lestari, Nafisah Nafisah, Santoso Santoso, Anggiani Nasution, Yudhistira Nugraha, Hasil Sembiring, Priatna Sasmita, Suwarno Suwarno


Sustainability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in high-altitude tropical upland is challenged by various abiotic and biotic problems. The main problems include low temperatures and blast disease. Farmers in high-altitude tropical uplands of Indonesia are still growing traditional rice varieties due to the absence of improved adaptive varieties. Development of improved varieties which are adapted to the high-altitude upland environment is therefore needed to increase productivity. This study aimed to investigate the interaction of genotype and environment of upland rice varieties across ten high-altitude upland locations in Indonesia and to determine their adaptability in the target areas. In addition, screening on blast disease and grain quality analysis was performed to characterize the genotypes. Significant interaction effects between genotype and the environment were observed for all agronomic characters. Genotype adaptability was determined based on the regression coefficient of grain yield and the environmental index. Genotypes such as B14168E-MR-10 adapted well in locations with low environmental indexes. In contrast, genotypes such as B11592F-MR-23-2-2 adapted well in locations with high environmental indexes. Screening using ten rice blast races showed that upland rice genotypes had a broad spectrum of resistance. Most of the genotypes had intermediate amylose content in the grains.  Recently, the lines B14168E-MR-10 and B11592F-MR-23-2-2 have been approved to be released as new, improved rice varieties for high-altitude upland in Indonesia, namely Luhur 1 and Luhur 2, respectively. Both varieties are expected to be adopted by farmers in high-altitude upland to increase rice productivity in this environment.


Upland rice; high altitude; low-temperature stress; blast disease.

Full Text:



T. H. Fairhurst and A. Dobermann, “Rice in the Global Food Supply,” Better Crop. Int., vol. 16, 2002, Accessed: Jun. 02, 2018.

GRiSP, Rice Almanac 4th Edition. Los Banos: International Rice Research Institute, 2013.

P. C. Gupta and J. C. O’Toole, Upland Rice A Global Perspective. Manila: International Rice Research Institute, 1986.

N. Ahmadi, J.-L. Dzido, M. Vales, J. Rakotoarisoa, and A. Chabanne, “Upland rice for highlands: New varieties and sustainable cropping systems for food security promising prospects for the global challenges of rice production the world will face in the coming years?,” in FAO Rice Conference 04/CRS.19, 2004, p. 14.

Q. Zhang, Q. Chen, S. Wang, Y. Hong, and Z. Wang, “Rice and cold stress: methods for its evaluation and summary of cold tolerance-related quantitative trait loci,” Rice, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–12, Dec. 2014.

K. K. Jena, S. M. Kim, J. P. Suh, C. I. Yang, and Y. G. Kim, “Identification of cold-tolerant breeding lines by quantitative trait loci associated with cold tolerance in rice,” Crop Sci., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 517–523, Mar. 2012, doi: 10.2135/cropsci2010.12.0733.

L. M. Raboin, T. Randriambololona, T. Radanielina, A. Ramanantsoanirina, N. Ahmadi, and J. Dusserre, “Upland rice varieties for smallholder farming in the cold conditions in Madagascar’s tropical highlands,” F. Crop. Res., vol. 169, pp. 11–20, Dec. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2014.09.006.

L. Z. Han et al., “Genetic and QTL Analysis for Low-Temperature Vigor of Germination in Rice,” Acta Genet. Sin., vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 998–1006, Nov. 2006, doi: 10.1016/S0379-4172(06)60135-2.

V. C. Andaya and D. J. Mackill, “Mapping of QTLs associated with cold tolerance during the vegetative stage in rice,” J. Exp. Bot., vol. 54, no. 392, pp. 2579–2585, Nov. 2003, doi: 10.1093/jxb/erg243.

J. P. Suh et al., “Identification and analysis of QTLs controlling cold tolerance at the reproductive stage and validation of effective QTLs in cold-tolerant genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.),” Theor. Appl. Genet., vol. 120, no. 5, pp. 985–995, Mar. 2010.

M. Mori et al., “Detection of a novel quantitative trait locus for cold tolerance at the booting stage derived from a tropical japonica rice variety Silewah,” Breed. Sci., vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 61–68, 2011, doi: 10.1270/jsbbs.61.61.

S. R. Dalimunthe, L. P. Agustina Putri, T. Chairunnisa, and A. Hairmansis, “Effect of Low Temperature on upland rice germination,” in Proceeding International Conference Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resources Management (ICoSAaNRM 2018), Feb. 2020, vol. 2, no. 01.

K. A. Steele, S. Gyawali, K. D. Joshi, P. Shrestha, B. R. Sthapit, and J. R. Witcombe, “Has the introduction of modern rice varieties changed rice genetic diversity in a high-altitude region of Nepal?,” F. Crop. Res., vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 24–30, Jul. 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2009.04.002.

Z. Harahap, “Rice improvement for cold tolerance in Indonesia,” in Report of A Rice Cold Tolerance Workshop, Los Banos, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute, 1979, p. 139.

A. Kasim, P. Laksono, M. K. Rumbarar, and M. Thamrin, “Adaptation of new superior rice varieties at the altitude of 1600 masl in Jayawijaya Papua,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 484, p. 12085, 2020, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/484/1/012085.

A. Hairmansis et al., “Upland rice breeding lines adapted to high elevation areas selected through participatory approaches,” SABRAO J. Breed. Genet., vol. 49, no. 3, 2017.

D. Balakrishnan et al., “Genotype × Environment Interactions of Yield Traits in Backcross Introgression Lines Derived from Oryza sativa cv. Swarna/Oryza nivara,” Front. Plant Sci., vol. 7, no. OCTOBER2016, p. 1530, Oct. 2016, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01530.

N. P. Mandal et al., “Implications of genotype × input interactions in breeding superior genotypes for favorable and unfavorable rainfed upland environments,” F. Crop. Res., vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 135–144, Aug. 2010, doi: 10.1016/J.FCR.2010.05.004.

W. K. Finlay and G. N. Wilkinson, “The analysis of adaptation in plant breeding program,” Aust. J. Agric. Res., vol. 14, pp. 742–754, 1963.

A. Hairmansis et al., “High yielding and blast resistant rice cultivars developed for tropical upland area,” SABRAO J. Breed. Genet., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 117–127, 2019.

Z. Mardiah, A. Rakhmi, S. Indrasari, and B. Kusbiantoro, “Grain quality evaluation to determine consumer preferences pattern of rice in Java islands,” J. Penelit. Pertan. Tanam. Pangan, vol. 35, no. 3, p. 123913, 2016.

N. D. Cruz and G. S. Khush, “Rice grain quality evaluation procedures,” in Aromatic rices, R. K. Singh, U. S. Singh, and G. S. Khush, Eds. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 2000, p. 292.

S. O. P. Samonte, L. T. Wilson, A. M. McClung, and J. C. Medley, “Targeting cultivars onto rice growing environments using AMMI and SREG GGE biplot analyses,” Crop Sci., vol. 45, no. 6, p. 2414, Nov. 2005, doi: 10.2135/cropsci2004.0627.

I. Oh-e, K. Saitoh, and T. Kuroda, “Effects of High Temperature on Growth, Yield and Dry-Matter Production of Rice Grown in the Paddy Field,” Plant Prod. Sci., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 412–422, 2007, doi: 10.1626/pps.10.412.

X. Li et al., “Control of tillering in rice,” Nature, vol. 422, no. 6932, pp. 618–621, Apr. 2003, doi: 10.1038/nature01518.

S. Shrestha, F. Asch, H. Brueck, M. Giese, J. Dusserre, and A. Ramanantsoanirina, “Phenological responses of upland rice grown along an altitudinal gradient,” Environ. Exp. Bot., vol. 89, pp. 1–10, May 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.12.007.

M. Balestre, V. B. dos Santos, A. A. Soares, and M. S. Reis, “Stability and adaptability of upland rice genotypes,” Crop Breed. Appl. Biotechnol., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 357–363, Dec. 2010, doi: 10.1590/S1984-70332010000400011.

Y. Oladosu et al., “Genotype × Environment interaction and stability analyses of yield and yield components of established and mutant rice genotypes tested in multiple locations in Malaysia*,” Acta Agric. Scand. Sect. B Soil Plant Sci., vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 590–606, Oct. 2017, doi: 10.1080/09064710.2017.1321138.

W. Li, M. Chern, J. Yin, J. Wang, and X. Chen, “Recent advances in broad-spectrum resistance to the rice blast disease,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 50. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 114–120, Aug. 01, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2019.03.015.

C. Vera Cruz et al., “Rice disease management in the uplands of Indonesia and the Philippines,” in Natural resource management for poverty reduction and environmental sustainability in fragile rice-based systems. Limited Proceedings No. 15, 2009, p. 157.

R. Rachmat, R. Thahir, and M. Gummert, “The empirical relationship between price and quality of rice at market level in West Java,” Indones. J. Agric. Sci., vol. 7, no. 1, p. 27, Oct. 2016.

C. Gunarsih, W. R. Rohaeni, and N. Yunani, “Golden circle of Toba Lake: Richness of local rice,” in Proceedings PERIPI-2017 International Seminar Sustainable Use of Genetic Resources for Quality and Productivity Improvement, 2018.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development