The Effect of Blanching on the Quality of Freeze-Dried Edamame

Joko Nugroho Wahyu Karyadi, Inas Kamila, Arifin Dwi Saputro, Dwi Ayuni


Edamame (Glycine max. L. Merill) has been consumed due to its savory taste and high nutrient content. The Edamame can be dried and consumed as a crunchy snack through the freeze-drying process. However, this drying method has its drawbacks, such as a decrease in shrinkage ratio. One of the solutions to this is by blanching treatment before the freeze-drying process. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blanching pre-treatment on the quality of freeze-dried edamame. The properties assessed include moisture content, color, texture, shrinkage ratio, protein content, chlorophyll content, and morphology examination. Fresh edamame with the initial moisture content of 70% w.b. was introduced to the variation of steam-blanching and water-blanching before the freeze-drying process. Each blanching was done for 3, 9, and 15 minutes. The laboratory freeze-dryer used in this study was constructed with a stainless-steel plate (3 mm thickness) and had total dimensions of 1.0 x 0.8 x 1.0 m. The blanching treatment was proven to help promote the product quality, such as a higher shrinkage ratio (p < 0.05) and retain protein and chlorophyll content during the drying process. Hot-water blanching treatment was justified to be better than steam blanching treatment, gave the lowest final moisture content ranged from 3 – 6% d.b. Hot-water blanching also gave better results in terms of textural analysis and chlorophyll retention. The consumer acceptance test showed that freeze-dried edamame with hot-water blanching treatment gave a higher mean liking score than that with steam blanching treatment.


Edamame; freeze-drying; kinetic; physical quality; chemical quality.

Full Text:



B. Kusmanadhi and M. S. Poerwoko, “Production and quality of some edamame varietiesas affected by residual effect of worm compost application,†IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 215, no. 1, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/215/1/012020.

S. M. Purnama, C.-K. Cheng, and N. H. AR, “The Export Performance of Indonesian Edamame in Japan Market,†Sch. J. Econ. Bus. Manag., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 575–589, 2018, doi: 10.21276/sjebm.2018.5.7.4.

A. Widiyawati and Y. Susindra, “Utilization of edamame soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril) as modified of enteral formula high calories,†IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 207, no. 1, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/207/1/012039.

Y. Xu et al., “Physical and nutritional properties of edamame seeds as influenced by stage of development,†J. Food Meas. Charact., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 193–200, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s11694-015-9293-9.

X. Duan, “Main Current Vegetable Drying Technology II: Freeze-Drying and Related Combined Drying,†in Handbook of drying of vegetables and vegetable products, New York: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, 2017, pp. 25–44.

V. Eisinaite, R. Vinauskiene, P. Viskelis, and D. Leskauskaite, “Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages,†J. Food Sci., vol. 81, no. 9, pp. C2175–C2182, 2016, doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13413.

K. Fan, M. Zhang, and A. S. Mujumdar, “Recent developments in high efficient freeze-drying of fruits and vegetables assisted by microwave: A review,†Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 1357–1366, 2019, doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1420624.

N. A. H. Mustapa and S. R. Ahmad, “Effects of various drying methods on the vitamin C level of papaya locally grown in brunei darussalam,†Pertanika J. Sci. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 387–396, 2019.

S. Bhatta, T. S. Janezic, and C. Ratti, “Freeze-drying of plant-based foods,†Foods, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–22, 2020, doi: 10.3390/foods9010087.

I. Kamila, J. N. W. Karyadi, and A. D. Saputro, “Drying characteristics of Edamame (Glycine max. L. Merill) during freeze drying,†IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 355, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/355/1/012048.

H. O. Wang, Q. Q. Fu, S. J. Chen, Z. C. Hu, and H. X. Xie, “Effect of Hot-Water Blanching Pretreatment on Drying Characteristics and Product Qualities for the Novel Integrated Freeze-Drying of Apple Slices,†J. Food Qual., vol. 2018, 2018, doi: 10.1155/2018/1347513.

D. Vandeweyer, S. Lenaerts, A. Callens, and L. Van Campenhout, “Effect of blanching followed by refrigerated storage or industrial microwave drying on the microbial load of yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor),†Food Control, vol. 71, pp. 311–314, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.07.011.

S. Nag and K. K. Dash, “Mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics and moisture diffusivity study of elephant apple,†Int. Food Res. J., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2594–2600, 2016.

Y. H. Liu, X. F. Li, W. X. Zhu, L. Luo, X. Duan, and Y. Yin, “Drying characteristics, kinetics model and effective moisture diffusivity of vacuum far-infrared dried Rehmanniae,†Int. J. Agric. Biol. Eng., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 208–217, 2016, doi: 10.3965/j.ijabe.20160905.2082.

N. F. A. Rahman, A. Ismail, N. N. A. K. Shah, J. Varith, and R. Shamsudin, “Effect of drying temperature on Malaysia pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) osbeck) pomace residue under vacuum condition,†Pertanika J. Sci. Technol., vol. 27, no. S1, pp. 57–66, 2019.

A. Taner, Y. B. Oztekin, A. Tekgüler, H. Sauk, and H. Duran, “Classification of Varieties of Grain Species by Artificial Neural Networks,†Agronomy, vol. 8, no. 7, 2018, doi: 10.3390/agronomy8070123.

H. K. Mæhre, L. Dalheim, G. K. Edvinsen, E. O. Elvevoll, and I. J. Jensen, “Protein determination—method matters,†Foods, vol. 7, no. 1, 2018, doi: 10.3390/foods7010005.

R. Esteban, J. I. García-Plazaola, A. Hernández, and B. Fernández-Marín, “On the recalcitrant use of Arnon’s method for chlorophyll determination,†New Phytol., vol. 217, no. 2, pp. 474–476, 2018, doi: 10.1111/nph.14932.

C. D. Ferreira et al., “Changes in Phenolic Acid and Isoflavone Contents during Soybean Drying and Storage,†J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 1146–1155, 2019, doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b06808.

T. Orikasa, N. Ono, T. Watanabe, Y. Ando, T. Shiina, and S. Koide, “Impact of blanching pre-treatment on the drying rate and energy consumption during far-infrared drying of Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.),†Food Qual. Saf., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 97–103, 2018, doi: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyy006.

I. P. Turkiewicz, A. Wojdyło, K. Lech, K. Tkacz, and P. Nowicka, “Influence of different drying methods on the quality of Japanese quince fruit,†LWT - Food Sci. Technol., vol. 114, p. 108416, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108416.

A. Wojdyło, K. Lech, P. Nowicka, F. Hernandez, A. Figiel, and A. A. Carbonell-Barrachina, “Influence of Different Drying Techniques on Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity and Colour of Ziziphus jujube Mill. Fruits,†Molecules, vol. 24, p. 2361, 2019.

K. S. Raja, F. S. Taip, M. M. Z. Azmi, and M. R. I. Shishir, “Effect of pre-treatment and different drying methods on the physicochemical properties of Carica papaya L. leaf powder,†J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 150–156, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jssas.2017.04.001.

H. W. Xiao et al., “Recent developments and trends in thermal blanching – A comprehensive review,†Inf. Process. Agric., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 101–127, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.inpa.2017.02.001.

T. M. Oyinloye and W. B. Yoon, “Effect of freeze-drying on quality and grinding process of food produce: A review,†Processes, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1–23, 2020, doi: 10.3390/PR8030354.

N. Izli and A. Polat, “Freeze and convective drying of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller.): Effects on drying kinetics and quality attributes,†Heat Mass Transf. und Stoffuebertragung, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1317–1326, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s00231-018-2516-y.

S. Kaewsuksaeng, N. Tatmala, V. Srilaong, and N. Pongprasert, “Postharvest heat treatment delays chlorophyll degradation and maintains quality in Thai lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle cv. Paan) fruit,†Postharvest Biol. Technol., vol. 100, pp. 1–7, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2014.09.020.

L. Fernandes, J. A. Saraiva, J. A. Pereira, S. Casal, and E. Ramalhosa, “Post-harvest technologies applied to edible flowers: A review: Edible flowers preservation,†Food Rev. Int., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 132–154, 2019, doi: 10.1080/87559129.2018.1473422.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development