A Simple Stilt Structure Technique for Earthquake Resistance of Wooden Vernacular Houses in Bima, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia

Agus D. Hariyanto, Sugeng Triyadi, Andry Widyowijatnoko


The existence of local building structures in Bima vernacular architecture is the research object in this study. The condition of the Bima Regency, which is prone to tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, is the context that influences the structure of the wooden stilt houses. This vulnerability occurs because of two earthquake fault lines flanking the Sumbawa island and an active volcano, Mount Tambora. Identification of Bima vernacular houses' structures and their effectiveness in reducing deformation due to earthquakes become the aims of this study. Data collection uses field observation methods to identify local building structures and construction systems. It also uses digital simulation to determine diagonal bar elements' effectiveness on the stage structure in reducing deformation due to an earthquake. The results showed that the stilt structure consisting of post components with corbels to support the beams, double beams arranged in a cross, diagonal bars, and wooden pegs were structures that maintained their existence. The existence of this stilt structure technique is part of the local seismic culture of the Bima community. The simulation result shows that diagonal bars' presence reduces deformation in structural elements due to earthquake loads. The synergy between structural components occurs in the construction of the Bima vernacular house structure. Thus, the system, form, and material of the Bima stilt structure can reference the development of earthquake-resistant houses in Indonesia.


Stilt structure; earthquake resistant; vernacular architecture; Bima.

Full Text:



C. B. Santoso and D. S. Agustawijaya, “Seismic risk for Sumbawa Island based on seismicity and peak ground acceleration,†in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2020, vol. 413, no. 1.

P. N. Ratna, A. R. Gusman, and A. D. Nugraha, “Teleseismic body wave inversion in determining rupture process of Sumbawa doublet earthquake, November 25th, 2007,†in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2019, vol. 318, no. 1.

D. H. Lang, A. Kumar, S. Sulaymanov, and A. Meslem, “Building typology classification and earthquake vulnerability scale of Central and South Asian building stock,†J. Build. Eng., vol. 15, 2018.

J. Ortega, G. Vasconcelos, H. Rodrigues, and M. Correia, “A vulnerability index formulation for the seismic vulnerability assessment of vernacular architecture,†Eng. Struct., vol. 197, 2019.

A. T. Nguyen, N. S. H. Truong, D. Rockwood, and A. D. Tran Le, “Studies on sustainable features of vernacular architecture in different regions across the world: A comprehensive synthesis and evaluation,†Front. Archit. Res., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 535–548, 2019.

J. Ortega, G. Vasconcelos, H. Rodrigues, M. Correia, and P. B. Lourenço, “Traditional earthquake resistant techniques for vernacular architecture and local seismic cultures: A literature review,†J. Cult. Herit., vol. 27, pp. 181–196, 2017.

A. Erarslan, “Timber construction systems in anatolian vernacular architecture,†Bull. Transilv. Univ. Brasov, Ser. II For. Wood Ind. Agric. Food Eng., 2019.

Y. D. Aktaş, “Seismic resistance of traditional timber-frame hımış structures in Turkey: a brief overview,†Int. Wood Prod. J., vol. 8, pp. 21–28, 2017.

N. Ş. Güçhan, “History and Characteristics of Construction Techniques Used in Traditional Timber Ottoman Houses,†Int. J. Archit. Herit., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–20, Jan. 2018.

M. B. Baǧbanci and Ö. K. Baǧbanci, “The Dynamic Properties of Historic Timber-Framed Masonry Structures in Bursa, Turkey,†Shock Vib., vol. 2018, 2018.

B. Chand, H. B. Kaushik, and S. Das, “Material Characterization of Traditional Assam-Type Wooden Houses in Northeastern India,†J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 32, no. 12, 2020.

B. Chand, H. B. Kaushik, and S. Das, “Lateral load behavior of connections in Assam-type wooden houses in the Himalayan region of India,†Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 261, 2020.

S. Paudel, N. Shima, and T. Fujii, “Development of earthquake resilient housing in Nepal by development of earthwuake introducing Japanese,†AIJ Journal of Technology and Design, vol. 24, no. 57. 2018.

A. Buchanan and D. Moroder, “Log house performance in the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake,†Bull. New Zeal. Soc. Earthq. Eng., vol. 50, no. 2, 2017.

T. Horie and S. Kaneko, “Arrangement and terminology of the main structural members of the understructure in Japanese and British vernacular houses: Comparative studies in the terminology of traditional timber construction Part 2,†J. Archit. Plan. (Transactions AIJ), vol. 82, no. 740, 2017.

Y. M. Kim, “Structural analysis and conceptual seismic design of large-span Korean traditional timber structure,†Civ. Eng. Archit., vol. 8, no. 2, 2020.

G. Vasconcelos, P. B. Lourenço, and E. Poletti, “An Overview on the Seismic Behaviour of Timber Frame Structures,†in Historical Earthquake-Resistant Timber Frames in the Mediterranean Area, Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 119–132.

R. Lukic, E. Poletti, H. Rodrigues, and G. Vasconcelos, “Numerical modelling of the cyclic behavior of timber-framed structures,†Eng. Struct., vol. 165, no. January, pp. 210–221, 2018.

Q. Xie, L. Wang, S. Li, L. Zhang, and W. Hu, “Influence of wood infill walls on the seismic performance of Chinese traditional timber structure by shaking table tests,†Bull. Earthq. Eng., vol. 18, no. 10, 2020.

E. Crayssac, X. Song, Y. Wu, and K. Li, “Lateral performance of mortise-tenon jointed traditional timber frames with wood panel infill,†Eng. Struct., vol. 161, pp. 223–230, Apr. 2018.

BPS Kabupaten Bima, “Kabupaten Bima Dalam Angka 2018,†2018.

F. Ferrigni, “Vernacular architecture: a paradigm of the local seismic culture,†in Seismic Retrofitting: Learning from Vernacular Architecture, Editors: Mariana R. Correia, Paulo B. Lourenço, Humberto Varum, CRC Press – Taylor and Francis, 2015, pp. 3–9.

J. Ortega, G. Vasconcelos, and M. R. Correia, “Seismic-resistant building practices resulting from local seismic culture,†in Seismic Retrofitting: Learning from Vernacular Architecture, CRC Press, 2015, pp. 17–22.

J. Ortega, G. Vasconcelos, H. Rodrigues, and M. Correia, “Assessment of the efficiency of traditional earthquake resistant techniques for vernacular architecture,†Eng. Struct., vol. 173, no. June, pp. 1–27, 2018.

D. Gautam, J. Prajapati, K. V. Paterno, K. K. Bhetwal, and P. Neupane, “Disaster resilient vernacular housing technology in Nepal,†Geoenvironmental Disasters, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2016.

W. Wasilah, “The structural effectivity of bent piles in Ammatoan vernacular houses,†Buildings, vol. 9, no. 2, 2019.

B. Lumantarna and P. Pudjisuryadi, “Learning from Local Wisdom : Friction Damper in Traditional Building,†Civ. Eng. Dimens., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 190–195, 2012.

BSN, Beban Minimum Untuk Perancangan Bangunan Gedung dan Struktur Lain (SNI 1727:2013). Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional, 2013.

BSN, Tata Cara Pengawetan Kayu untuk Bangunan Rumah dan Gedung (SNI 03-3233-1998). Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional, 1998.

BSN, Tata Cara Perencanaan Ketahanan Gempa untuk Struktur Bangunan Gedung dan Non Gedung (SNI 1726:2012). Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional, 2012.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.12.4.12848


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development