Acceptance Ratio Analysis: An Early Fault Indicator for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System

Fatin Azirah Mohd. Shukor, Hedzlin Zainuddin, Nurmalessa Muhammad, Farah Liyana Muhammad Khir


This paper presents the Acceptance Ratio (AR) analysis for three different grid-connected photovoltaic (GCPV) systems working under the Malaysia tropical climate. AR is a ratio between actual AC power, PAC_actual, and predicted AC power, PAC_predicted. According to Malaysian Standard MS2692:2020,the AR value must ≥ 0.9 to classify as accepted in testing and commissioning test. In contrast, a rate < 0.9 indicates a non-accepted GCPV system.  Historical data of the AC power output, solar irradiance, and module temperature from January 1 to December 31, 2019, were used for the analysis. The analysis procedure was carried out using Matlab and Microsoft Excel software. The analysis covers the AC power analysis and the AR analysis based on the threshold of 0.9. The plotted monthly AC power graph shows that all systems have lower than 15 % differences between actual and predicted AC power. On the AR analysis, System 1 was found to show early fault indicator with a monthly cumulative percentage of AR < 0.9 ranges from 34 % to 71 %, meanwhile System 2 and System 3 have a lower cumulative percentage of AR < 0.9 ranges from 5 % to 19 %. This result suggested that only System 2 and 3 are fault-free GCPV systems and working in good condition. The outcome of this study has succeeded in providing preliminary AR analysis results for three GCPV systems located in Malaysia. This study would help to evaluate AR threshold reliability to indicate an early fault of a GCPV system.


Acceptance ratio; photovoltaic; grid-connected; AC power; AR threshold.

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