The Effect of Heavy Metal Lead (Pb) on the Growth of Ammonia-Degrading Bacteria and Physical Changes of Eichhornia crassipes in Groundwater Phytoremediation

Fahruddin Fahruddin, Muhammad Farid Samawi, Mustika Tuwo, Ramlan Efendi Tanjung


Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been extensively used for heavy metal phytoremediation and stimulating microorganism growth in the effort to break down organic pollutants by the exudate secreted by the plant. This study aims to figure out the growth of the ammonia-degrading bacteria population and figure out the physical changes occurring in water hyacinth during the Pb phytoremediation process. The phytoremediation method was performed under the batch system with the treatments: P1 with water hyacinth for groundwater with 2 ppm of Pb; P2 with water hyacinth for groundwater with 4 ppm Pb; and P0 with no water hyacinth and Pb addition. Observations include the growth of ammonia-degrading bacteria, ammonia concentration, Pb analysis, observation of physical changes, and measurement of biomass of the water hyacinth. Results show that the nitrifying bacteria population growth rate was higher in the 2 ppm Pb treatment than in the 4 ppm Pb treatment. The implication was that there occurred a higher ammonia concentration decrease in P1 by 0.43 mg/L from the initial concentration of 1.21 mg/L. As for the water hyacinth's physical changes, a lower growth rate happened to the 4 ppm Pb treatment, resulted in lower biomass of 75.46 g in the said treatment than in the 2 ppm Pb (79.00 g). The use of water hyacinth in phytoremediation also prompted the bacterial growth to break down organic waste, but high concentrations of heavy metals will influence the growth of the aquatic plant, water hyacinth.


phytoremediation; lead; water hyacinth; ammonia-degrading bacteria.

Full Text:



F. Fahruddin and R. E. Tanjung, ‘The Study of Bacteria Populations in Phytoremediation of Cadmium Using Eichhornia crassipes’, in The 3rd International Conference on Science, pp. 1–8, 2019.

A. Jose and J. G. Ray, ‘Toxic Heavy Metals in Human Blood in Relation to Certain Food and Environmental Samples in Kerala’, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 7946–7953, 2018.

M. A. Hashem, M. S. Nur-A-Tomal, N. R. Mondal, and M. A. Rahman, ‘Hair Burning and Liming in Tanneries is Asource of Pollution by Arsenic, Lead, Zinc, Manganese and Iron’, Environ. Chem. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 501–506, 2017.

C. Mendiguchía, C. Moreno, M. P. Mánuel-Vez, and M. García-Vargas, ‘Preliminary Investigation on The Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Marine Sediments Originated from Intensive Aquaculture Effluents’, Aquaculture, vol. 254, no. 1, pp. 317–325, 2006, doi:

C.-H. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Guo, W.-X. Shen, and M.-X. Gu, ‘Isolation and Identification of Ammonia Nitrogen Degradation Strains from Industrial Wastewater’, Engineering, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 790–793, 2012, doi:

Fahruddin, N. Haedar, S. Santoso, and S. Wahyuni, ‘Ability Test to Grow Bacterial Isolates from Water and Sediments of Tallo River to Metal Lead (Pb)’, J. Ilmu Alam dan Lingkung., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 58–64, 2019.

V. Cangelosi, L. Ruckthong, and V. L. Pecoraro, ‘Lead(II) Binding in Natural and Artificial Proteins’, Met. Ions Life Sci., vol. 10, no. 17, pp. 1–60, 2017.

U. Zulfiqara et al., ‘Lead Toxicity in Plants: Impacts and Remediation’, J. Environ. Manage., vol.15, no. 250, pp. 109557, 2019.

F. S. Nas and M. Ali, ‘The Effect of Lead on Plants in Terms of Growing and Biochemical Parameters: A Review’, MOJ Ecol. Environ. Sci., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 265–268, 2018.

J. Zhou, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, L. Yang, and Y. We, ‘The Effects of Lead Stress on Photosynthetic Function and Chloroplast Ultrastructure of Robinia pseudoacacia Seedlings’, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 10718–10726, 2017.

J. Zhou, Z. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wei, and Z. Jiang, ‘Effects of Lead Stress on The Growth, Physiology, and Cellular Structure of Privet Seedlings’, PLoS One, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. e0191139, 2018.

U. Ashraf et al., ‘Lead (Pb) Toxicity; Physio-Biochemical Mechanisms, Grain Yield, Quality, and Pb Distribution Proportions in Scented Rice’, Front. Plant Sci., vol. 2, pp. 1–17, 2017.

C. De Laet, T. Matringe, E. Petit, and C. Grison, ‘Eichhornia crassipes: A Powerful Bio-Indicator for Water Pollution by Emerging Pollutants’, Sci. Rep., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2019.

S. Mishra and A. Maiti, ‘The Efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes in The Removal of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants from Wastewater: A Review’, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 7921–7937, 2017.

P. Saha, O. Shinde, and S. Sarkar, ‘Phytoremediation of Industrial Mines Wastewater Using Water Hyacinth’, Int. J. Phytoremediation, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 87–96, 2017.

F. Fahruddin, A. Abdullah, and N. La Nafie, ‘Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage Waste Using Sediment as Source of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria to Reduce Sulfates’, Pollut. Res., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 903–907, 2018.

A. Rahim and T. R. Soeprobowati, ‘Bioaccumulation of Lead (Pb) by The Common Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms in Batujai Reservoir, Central Lombok Regency, Indonesia’, AACL Bioflux, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1435–1444, 2018.

R. E. Tanjung, F. Fahruddin, and M. F. Samawi, ‘Phytoremediation Relationship of Lead (Pb) by Eichhornia crassipes on pH, BOD and COD in Groundwater’, J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1341, 2019.

A. Wolińska, A. Szafranek-Nakonieczna, A. Banach, M. Błaszczyk, and Z. Stępniewska, ‘The Impact of Agricultural Soil Usage on Activity and Abundance of Ammonifying Bacteria in Selected Soils From Poland’, Springerplus, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2016.

M. F. Abdel-Sabour, ‘Water Hyacinth: Available and Renewable Resource’, Electron. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1746–1759, 2010.

M. Constable, M. Charlton, F. Jensen, K. M. Donald, G. Craig, and K. W. Taylor, ‘An Ecological Risk Assessment of Ammonia in the Aquatic Environment’, J. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. An Int. J., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 527–548, 2003.

K. Yaqin, Y. Karim, and L. Fachruddin, ‘Water Quality and Concentration of Metals in Lake Unhas’, J. Pengelolaan Perair., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2018.

L. Wu, C. Han, G. Zhu, and W. Zhong, ‘Responses of Active Ammonia Oxidizers and Nitrification Activity in Eutrophic Lake Sediments to Nitrogen and Temperature’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 85, no. 18, pp. 1-12, 2019.

J. Mohan, N. Mohan, N. B. Shakya, A. Pandey, and R. Chauhan, ‘A Review on Secondary Metabolites, Pharmacological Status and Phytoremediation to Treat Water Hyacinth’, Ann. Plant Sci., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 2170-2174, 2018.

Z. Luo, J. Ma, F. Chen, X. Li, and S. Zhang, ‘Effects of Pb Smelting on The Soil Bacterial Community Near a Secondary Lead Plant’, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1–16, 2018.

R. Singh, N. Gautam, A. Mishra, and R. Gupta, ‘Heavy Metals and Living Systems: an Overview’, Indian J. Pharmacol., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 246–253, 2011.

S. Shafiq et al., ‘Lead, Cadmium and Zinc Phytotoxicity Alter DNA Methylation Levels to Confer Heavy Metal Tolerance in Wheat’, Int. J. Mol. Sci., vol. 20, no. 19, pp. 1–18, 2019.

R. E. Tanjung, F. Fahruddin, and M. F. Samawi, ‘Absorption of Heavy Metal Lead (Pb) by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Its Influence to Total Dissolved Solids of Groundwater in Phytoremediation’, Indo. Chim. Acta., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 10–15, 2020.

P. Sharma and R. Dubey, ‘Lead Toxicity in Plants’, Brazilian J. Plant Physiol., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 35–52, 2005, doi: 10.1590/S1677-04202005000100004.

S. Fry, J. G. Miller, and J. Dumville, ‘Possible functions of copper ions in cell wall loosening’, in Plant Nutrition, vol. 92, pp. 100–101, 2001

S. Rosidah, Y. U. Anggraito, and K. K. Pukan, ‘Tolerance Test of Tobacco Plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) to Stress of Heavy Metal Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), and Copper (Cu) In Liquid Culture’, Unnes J. Life Sci., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 66–78, 2014.

R. Marius-Daniel, S. Stelian, and C. Dragomir, ‘The Effect of Acute Physical Exercise on The Antioxidant Status of The Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle in The Wistar Rat’, Rom. Biotechnol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 56–61, 2010.

N. Jiang, X. L. J. Zeng, Z.-R. Yang, L.-Y. Zheng, and S.-T. Wang, ‘Lead Toxicity Induced Growth and Antioxidant Responses in Luffa Cylindrica Seedlings’, Int. J. Agric. Biol., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 205–210, 2010.

S. K. Kohli et al., ‘Current Scenario of Pb Toxicity in Plants: Unraveling Plethora of Physiological Responses’, Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 186, vol. 249, pp. 153–197, 2020.

G. X. Wang, M. C. Fuerstenau, and R. W. Smith, ‘Removal Of Metal Ions By Nonliving Water Hyacinth Roots’, Mining, Metall. Explor., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 41–47, 1999.

E. Popova, ‘Impact Of Heavy Metals on Photosynthetic Pigment Content in Roadside Plant Communities’, AIP Conference Proceedings vol. 1899, no. 1, 2017.

M. Szopiński et al., ‘Toxic Effects of Cd and Zn on the Photosynthetic Apparatus of the Arabidopsis halleri and Arabidopsis arenosa Pseudo-Metallophytes’, Front. Plant Sci., vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 748, 2019.

A. Pitzschke, C. Forzani, and H. Hirt, ‘Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Plants’, Antioxid. Redox Signal., vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1757–1764, 2006.

I. Morkunas, A. Woźniak, V. C. Mai, R. Rucińska-Sobkowiak, and P. Jeandet, ‘The Role of Heavy Metals in Plant Response to Biotic Stress’, Molecules, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 2320, 2018.

T. Houri, Y. Khairallah, A. Al Zahab, B. Osta, D. Romanos, and G. Haddad, ‘Heavy Metals Accumulation Effects on The Photosynthetic Performance of Geophytes in Mediterranean Reserve’, J. King Saud Univ., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 874–880, 2019.

Y. Yang et al., ‘Response of Photosynthesis to Different Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Davidia Involucrata’, PLoS One, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. e0228563, 2020.

A. Sharma et al., ‘Photosynthetic Response of Plants Under Different Abiotic Stresses: A Review’, J. Plant Growth Regul., vol. 39, pp. 509–531, 2019.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development