Cowanin, a Cytotoxic Xanthone from Asam Kandis (Garcinia cowa, Roxb.) Reduced Cell Migration and Induced Cell Cycle Arrest on T47D Human Cancer Cell

Dira Hefni, - Dachriyanus, Fatma Sri Wahyuni, Eti Yerizel, Dessy Arisanty, Lusiana Nofita Yusra


This study aims to investigate and evaluate the mechanism action of cowanin, a cytotoxic xanthone isolated from ethanolic extract of the stem bark of asam kandis (Garcinia cowa Roxb). This compound was isolated after successive column and radial chromatography to give a yellow needless crystal, m.p. 121-124 oC. Based on ultraviolet, infrared, mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data and comparison with those of the literature, this compound was elucidated as cowanin. Since it had activity against T47D human breast cancer cell lines, further investigation of its mechanism activity was performed to explore the effects of cowanin on cell viability, migration of cells, and the cell cycle activities against T47D breast cancer cells. Viability of cell was carried out by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, migration of cells by scratch migration assay, and the cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry method. As a result of this investigation, it can be seen that cowanin could inhibited T47D cells' growth at concentration 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 µg/ml at 48 hours with the IC50 value of 11.11 µg/ml. Cowanin exhibited inhibiting the cell migration T47D cells at concentration 11.1 μg/mL treated cells at 48 h was 0.32 fold compared to control, suggesting the potent inhibitory effect of it. Cowanin is caused in significant detention of T47D cells at the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle. Based on these data, it can be concluded that cowanin is a potential candidate to be developed as an anticancer drug.


cell cycle; cowanin; Garcinia cowa Roxb; T47D; breast cancer; flow cytometry.

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