Stock Performance and Fishers’ Perception of Grouper and Snapper Fisheries in the Saleh Bay, Indonesia

Diding Sudira Efendi, Luky Adrianto, - Yonvitner, Yusli Wardiatno


The legal basis of managing grouper and snapper fisheries in Saleh Bay is the Governor Regulation of West Nusa Tenggara No. 32 of 2018. This study aims to assess stock performance and understand fishers' perception of the regulation. In this study, we used length-based assessment, perception analysis, and Rapid Appraisal for Fisheries technique. The overall results showed that the implementation of the governor fisheries management regulation was still not optimal, although the potential spawning ratio (SPR) of most fish stocks has higher than the threshold, being over 20% (SPR limit reference point), except Epinephelus coioides. However, fishers had diverse perceptions of the governor regulations and had not fully complied with the most important ones. These included the minimum size of catch and the allowed type of fishing gear. Therefore, we identify four management strategies to improve a more sustainable fisheries management are: an intensive program to increase public awareness about sustainable fisheries needs to be conducted, the policy to limit the legal size must be enforced and should be adopted as provincial regulation in the future, the surveillance capability and law enforcement of destructive fishing practices (bombs and potassium) should be strengthened, stakeholder participation should be engaged, and social institutions of the fishing community should be empowered by co-management. This study also highlights the urgency of establishing a combination of market-based management (e.g., seafood certification) and a closed fishing season in spawning aggregation areas to complement existing fishery management.


Grouper; snapper; effectiveness of regulation; overexploitation; sustainability.

Full Text:



BPS-Statistics of Sumbawa Regency, Sumbawa Regency in Figure 2019. Sumbawa: BPS-Statistics of Sumbawa Regency, 2019.

BPS-Statistics of Dompu Regency, Dompu Regency in Figure 2019. Dompu: BPS-Statistics of Dompu Regency, 2019.

D. S. Efendi, L. Adrianto, Yonvitner, Y. Wardiatno, and S. Agustina, “The performance of stock indicators of grouper (Serranidae) and snapper (Lutjanidae) fisheries in Saleh Bay, Indonesia,” AACL Bioflux, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 2431–2444, 2020.

S. Agustina, A. S. Panggabean, M. Natsir, Jimmi, H. Retnoningtyas, and I. Yulianto, Profile of Grouper and Snapper Fisheries Stock in Saleh Bay, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Bogor: Wildlife Conservation Society, 2017.

H. Retnoningtyas et al., “Stakeholder participation in management planning for grouper and snapper fisheries in West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia,” Mar. Policy, vol. 128, no. February, p. 104452, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2021.104452.

T. Yildiz and A. Ulman, “Analyzing gaps in policy: Evaluation of the effectiveness of minimum landing size (MLS) regulations in Turkey,” Mar. Policy, vol. 115, no. January, p. 103829, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2020.103829.

N. Carvalho, R. Van Anrooy, T. Vassdal, and M. Dagtekin, Techno-economic performance review of selected fishing feets in Europe, FAO Fisher. Rome: FAO, 2020.

A. Tilley, P. Herrón, S. Espinosa, J. L. Angarita, and S. Box, “Predicting vulnerability to management changes in data-limited, small-scale fisheries,” Mar. Policy, vol. 94, no. May, pp. 39–45, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2018.04.013.

P. Amorim, P. Sousa, E. Jardim, M. Azevedo, and G. M. Menezes, “Length-frequency data approaches to evaluate snapper and grouper fisheries in the Java Sea, Indonesia,” Fish. Res., vol. 229, no. March, p. 105576, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fishres.2020.105576.

S. Agustina, A. S. Panggabean, M. Natsir, H. Retroningtyas, and I. Yulianto, “Yield-per-recruit modeling as biological reference points to provide fisheries management of leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) in Saleh Bay, West Nusa Tenggara,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 278, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/278/1/012005.

M. Khasanah, N. N. Kadir, and J. Jompa, “Reproductive biology of three important threatened/near-threatened groupers (Plectropomus leopardus, Epinephelus polyphekadion and Plectropomus areolatus) in eastern Indonesia and implications for management,” Animals, vol. 9, no. 643, pp. 1–18, 2019.

Mudjirahayu, R. Bawole, U. N. W. J. Rembet, A. S. Ananta, F. Runtuboi, and R. Sala, “Growth, mortality and exploitation rate of Plectropomus maculatus and P. oligocanthus (Groupers, Serranidae) on Cenderawasih Bay National Park, Indonesia,” Egypt. J. Aquat. Res., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 213–218, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.ejar.2017.09.002.

M. Patanda, S. H. Wisudo, D. R. Monintja, and B. Wiryawan, “Sustainability for reef fish resource based on productivity and susceptibility in Wangi-Wangi Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia,” AACL Bioflux, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 861–874, 2017.

R. Bawole, M. Rahayu, U. N. W. J. Rembet, A. S. Ananta, F. Runtuboi, and R. Sala, “Growth and mortality rate of the napan-yaur coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus (Pisces: Serranidae), Cenderawasih Bay National Park, Indonesia,” Biodiversitas, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 758–764, 2017, doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d180245.

Ernaningsih, Asbar, Danial, A. Hasrun, and M. Jamal, “Population dynamics and exploitation rate of coral grouper Plectropomus leopardus in the Sarappo Islands, Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 253, no. 1, p. 10 p, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/253/1/012028.

Muis, R. Kurnia, Sulistiono, and Taryono, “Coral reefs status and fish species in coastal waters of Spelman Straits, southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia,” AACL Bioflux, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 2020–2029, 2019.

D. S. Achmad, S. A. Ali, Sudirman, and Y. N. Indar, “The gonad maturity development and spawning season of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) at Kwandang Bay, Gorontalo Province, Indonesia,” AACL Bioflux, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 642–649, 2019.

M. Erauskin-Extramiana, S. Z. Herzka, G. Hinojosa-Arango, and O. Aburto-Oropeza, “An interdisciplinary approach to evaluate the status of large-bodied Serranid fisheries: The case of Magdalena-Almejas Bay lagoon complex, Baja California Sur, Mexico,” Ocean Coast. Manag., vol. 145, pp. 21–34, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.05.005.

A. Said and R. Chuenpagdee, “Aligning the sustainable development goals to the small-scale fisheries guidelines: A case for EU fisheries governance,” Mar. Policy, vol. 107, no. March, p. 103599, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103599.

M. Natsir, T. Ruchimat, S. Agustina, and I. Yulianto, “Application of global positioning system tracker to detect the fishing ground location and effective effort in artisanal fishery,” Sensors Mater., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 803–814, 2019, doi: 10.18494/SAM.2019.2238.

A. Halim, N. R. Loneragan, B. Wiryawan, A. R. Hordyk, M. F. A. Sondita, and I. Yulianto, “Evaluating data-limited fisheries for grouper (Serranidae) and snapper (Lutjanidae) in the Coral Triangle, eastern Indonesia,” Reg. Stud. Mar. Sci., vol. 38, p. 101388, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.rsma.2020.101388.

ICES, “ICES reference points for stocks in categories 3 and 4,” ICES Tech. Guidel., no. February, p. 50, 2018.

S. Mavruk, İ. Saygu, F. Bengil, V. Alan, and E. Azzurro, “Grouper fishery in the Northeastern Mediterranean: An assessment based on interviews on resource users,” Mar. Policy, vol. 87, no. July 2017, pp. 141–148, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2017.10.018.

T. J. Pitcher and D. Preikshot, “RAPFISH: A rapid appraisal technique to evaluate the sustainability status of fisheries,” Fish. Res., vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 255–270, 2001, doi: 10.1016/S0165-7836(00)00205-8.

L. Chong et al., “Performance evaluation of data-limited, length-based stock assessment methods,” ICES J. Mar. Sci., vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 97–108, 2020, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsz212.

É. A. Jimenez, R. S. L. Barboza, M. T. Amaral, and F. Lucena Frédou, “Understanding changes to fish stock abundance and associated conflicts: Perceptions of small-scale fishers from the Amazon coast of Brazil,” Ocean Coast. Manag., vol. 182, no. March, p. 104954, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.104954.

É. A. Jimenez, J. G. Gonzalez, M. T. Amaral, and F. Lucena Frédou, “Sustainability indicators for the integrated assessment of coastal small-scale fisheries in the Brazilian Amazon,” Ecol. Econ., no. November, p. 106910, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106910.

A. Hordyk, K. Ono, S. Valencia, N. Loneragan, and J. Prince, “A novel length-based empirical estimation method of spawning potential ratio (SPR), and tests of its performance, for small-scale, data-poor fisheries,” ICES J. Mar. Sci., vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 217–231, 2014, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsu004.

J. Prince, S. Creech, H. Madduppa, and A. Hordyk, “Length based assessment of spawning potential ratio in data-poor fisheries for blue swimming crab (Portunus spp.) in Sri Lanka and Indonesia: Implications for sustainable management,” Reg. Stud. Mar. Sci., vol. 36, p. 101309, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.rsma.2020.101309.

T. K. Mildenberger, M. H. Taylor, and M. Wolff, “TropFishR: an R package for fisheries analysis with length-frequency data,” Methods Ecol. Evol., vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1520–1527, 2017, doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12791.

J. Prince and A. Hordyk, “What to do when you have almost nothing: A simple quantitative prescription for managing extremely data-poor fisheries,” Fish Fish., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 224–238, 2019, doi: 10.1111/faf.12335.

Y. J. Sadovy de Mitcheson et al., “Valuable but vulnerable: Over-fishing and under-management continue to threaten groupers so what now?,” Mar. Policy, vol. 116, no. February, pp. 1–10, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2020.103909.

J. Agar, M. Shivlani, C. Fleming, and D. Solís, “Small-scale fishers’ perceptions about the performance of seasonal closures in the commonwealth of Puerto Rico,” Ocean Coast. Manag., vol. 175, no. March 2018, pp. 33–42, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.03.025.

I. Cahyadinata, A. Fahrudin, Sulistiono, and R. Kurnia, “Perception and participation of fishermen in the sustainable management of mud crabs on the outermost small island (Case study: Enggano Island, Bengkulu Province, Indonesia),” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1330–1336, 2019, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.9.4.7287.

Y. Hayati, L. Adrianto, M. Krisanti, W. S. Pranowo, and F. Kurniawan, “Magnitudes and tourist perception of marine debris on small tourism island: Assessment of Tidung Island, Jakarta, Indonesia,” Mar. Pollut. Bull., vol. 158, no. June, p. 111393, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111393.

A. Fauzi, Teknik Analisis Keberlanjutan. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2019.

Suharno, N. Anwar, and E. Saraswati, “A technique of assessing the status of sustainability of resources,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 250, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/250/1/012080.

T. J. Pitcher et al., “Improvements to Rapfish: A rapid evaluation technique for fisheries integrating ecological and human dimensionsa,” J. Fish Biol., vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 865–889, 2013, doi: 10.1111/jfb.12122.

L. O. M. Yasir Haya and M. Fujii, “Assessment of coral reef ecosystem status in the Pangkajene and Kepulauan Regency, Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia, using the rapid appraisal for fisheries and the analytic hierarchy process,” Mar. Policy, vol. 118, no. July 2019, p. 104028, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104028.

S. Handayani, D. G. Bengen, I. W. Nurjaya, L. Adrianto, and Y. Wardiatno, “The sustainability status of mangrove ecosystem management in the rehabilitation area of Sayung coastal zone, Demak Regency, Central Java Indonesia,” AACL Bioflux, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 865–884, 2020.

E. A. Babcock, A. Tewfik, and V. Burns-Perez, “Fish community and single-species indicators provide evidence of unsustainable practices in a multi-gear reef fishery,” Fish. Res., vol. 208, no. July, pp. 70–85, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.fishres.2018.07.003.

A. Gkargkavouzi, S. Paraskevopoulos, and S. Matsiori, “Public perceptions of the marine environment and behavioral intentions to preserve it: The case of three coastal cities in Greece,” Mar. Policy, vol. 111, no. November 2019, p. 103727, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103727.

M. A. Messias et al., “Ethnoecology of Lutjanidae (snappers) in communities of artisanal fisheries in northeast Brazil,” Ocean Coast. Manag., vol. 181, no. March, p. 104866, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.104866.

D. S. Efendi, L. Adrianto, and Y. Wardiatno, “Analisis bioekonomi spasial perikanan kerapu dalam kerangka pengelolaan perikanan di Teluk Saleh,” vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 338–351, 2020.

M. Khasanah, N. Nurdin, Y. Sadovy de Mitcheson, and J. Jompa, “Management of the grouper export trade in Indonesia,” Rev. Fish. Sci. Aquac., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2020, doi: 10.1080/23308249.2018.1542420.

P. Herrón, L. C. Kluger, G. A. Castellanos-Galindo, M. Wolff, and M. Glaser, “Understanding gear choices and identifying leverage points for sustainable tropical small-scale marine fisheries,” Ocean Coast. Manag., vol. 188, no. May, p. 105074, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.105074.

T. J. Pitcher, D. Kalikoski, K. Short, D. Varkey, and G. Pramod, “An evaluation of progress in implementing ecosystem-based management of fisheries in 33 countries,” Mar. Policy, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 223–232, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2008.06.002.

Y. Sadovy de Mitcheson, P. L. Colin, S. J. Lindfield, and A. Bukurrou, “A decade of monitoring an Indo-Pacific grouper spawning aggregation: Benefits of protection and importance of survey design,” Front. Mar. Sci., vol. 7, no. November, pp. 1–23, 2020, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.571878.

K. L. Thomas Travaille, J. Lindley, G. A. Kendrick, L. B. Crowder, and J. Clifton, “The market for sustainable seafood drives transformative change in fishery social-ecological systems,” Glob. Environ. Chang., vol. 57, no. November 2018, p. 101919, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2019.05.003.

S. Jentoft et al., “Working together in small-scale fisheries: harnessing collective action for poverty eradication,” Marit. Stud., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s40152-018-0094-8.

S. Wallner-Hahn and M. de la Torre-Castro, “Early steps for successful management in small-scale fisheries: An analysis of fishers’ managers’ and scientists’ opinions preceding implementation,” Mar. Pollut. Bull., vol. 134, no. September 2017, pp. 186–196, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.07.058.

H. Booth, U. Mardhiah, B. Apolinardus, Y. Lia, D. Sarah, and L. Dwi, “An integrated approach to tackling wildlife crime : Impact and lessons learned from the world ’ s largest targeted manta ray fishery,” Conserv. Sci. Pract., no. October, pp. 1–18, 2020, doi: 10.1111/csp2.314.

M. M. Islam, M. Nahiduzzaman, and M. A. Wahab, “Fisheries co-management in hilsa shad sanctuaries of Bangladesh: Early experiences and implementation challenges,” Mar. Policy, vol. 117, no. March, p. 103955, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2020.103955.

C. N. T. Quynh, S. Schilizzi, A. Hailu, and S. Iftekhar, “Fishers’ preference heterogeneity and trade-offs between design options for more effective monitoring of fisheries,” Ecol. Econ., vol. 151, no. May, pp. 22–33, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.04.032.

D. S. Efendi, L. Adrianto, Yonvitner, Y. Wardiatno, and Muis, “The economic performance of grouper (Serranidae) and snapper (lutjanidae) fisheries in Saleh Bay, Indonesia,” AACL Bioflux, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 3556–3565, 2020.

I. Cahyadinata, Nusril, and Gushevinalti, “Descriptive, correlation analysis and analytical hierarchy process of coastal community empowerment of Bengkulu City, Indonesia,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1304–1310, 2020, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.10.3.2659.

J. G. Mason, J. Alfaro-Shigueto, J. C. Mangel, L. B. Crowder, and N. M. Ardoin, “Fishers’ solutions for hammerhead shark conservation in Peru,” Biol. Conserv., vol. 243, no. February 2019, p. 108460, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108460.

M. Semitiel-García and P. Noguera-Méndez, “Fishers’ participation in small-scale fisheries. A structural analysis of the Cabo de Palos-Islas Hormigas MPA, Spain,” Mar. Policy, vol. 101, no. November 2017, pp. 257–267, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2018.04.009.

R. S. Pomeroy and N. L. Andrew, “Small-scale fisheries management: Frameworks and approaches for the developing world,” in Small-Scale Fisheries Management: Frameworks and Approaches for the Developing World, R. S. Pomeroy and N. L. Andrew, Eds. Oxfordshire and Cambridge: CAB International, 2011, pp. 1–247.

R. H. Roa-Ureta, J. Henríquez, and C. Molinet, “Achieving sustainable exploitation through co-management in three Chilean small-scale fisheries,” Fish. Res., vol. 230, no. June, p. 105674, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fishres.2020.105674.

K. E. Pellowe and H. M. Leslie, “The interplay between formal and informal institutions and the potential for co-management in a Mexican small-scale fishery,” Mar. Policy, no. August, p. 104179, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104179.

M. Léopold, O. Thébaud, and A. Charles, “The dynamics of institutional innovation: Crafting co-management in small-scale fisheries through action research,” J. Environ. Manage., vol. 237, no. July 2018, pp. 187–199, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.01.112.

L. d’Armengol, M. Prieto Castillo, I. Ruiz-Mallén, and E. Corbera, “A systematic review of co-managed small-scale fisheries: Social diversity and adaptive management improve outcomes,” Glob. Environ. Chang., vol. 52, no. July, pp. 212–225, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.07.009.

U. Muawanah et al., “Review of national laws and regulation in Indonesia in relation to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management,” Mar. Policy, vol. 91, no. August 2017, pp. 150–160, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2018.01.027.

J. Kurien, “Collective action and co-management initiatives in post-disaster Aceh, Indonesia,” Marit. Stud., vol. 16, no. 1, 2017, doi: 10.1186/s40152-017-0075-3.

M. C. Medeiros, R. R. D. Barboza, G. Martel, and J. da S. Mourão, “Combining local fishers’ and scientific ecological knowledge: Implications for comanagement,” Ocean Coast. Manag., vol. 158, no. February, pp. 1–10, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.03.014.

A. M. Cisneros-Montemayor, M. J. Zetina-Rejón, M. J. Espinosa-Romero, M. A. Cisneros-Mata, G. G. Singh, and F. J. Fernández-Rivera Melo, “Evaluating ecosystem impacts of data-limited artisanal fisheries through ecosystem modelling and traditional fisher knowledge,” Ocean Coast. Manag., vol. 195, no. February, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105291.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development