Recreational, Fitness and Health Center: Facility Layout Design Case Study

Tariq Tashtoush, Dagoberto Melero, Tomas Duarte, Homero De La Cruz


Systems Engineers focus on a systematic development process for any project of interest, aiming to proceed from a concept to a final successful product. They consider business operation, management, and engineering technicality. Our team was giving a chance to develop and improve a real-life system, starting from the design stage by implementing regulation, improvements, and integrating new technologies. Our focus was on designing a new local Health Center that provides recreational, fitness, and health care services. Facility design and logistics are considered as something that can “make it or break it†for businesses because they affect the customer’s perception, attractiveness, comfort, and accessibility levels, which are essential business success factors.  Any business type such as warehouse, customer service, or food distribution, apply different facility design techniques. Our team designed a facility layout, which meets the state, city, and American with Disabilities Act regulations, and provides the local community with a state-of-art health facility. A health club layout design considers multiple factors, such as type and number of equipment, facility location, available amenities, human factors, user safety, and use frequency. All these factors had been included to design the 50,000-ft2 and 2-floors layout of the health center facility. The team presented 2D and 3D layout designs that comply with the imposed constraints and requirements while accommodating users’ needs and confront.


facility layout; facility design; health care facility; human factors; 3D design; building design development.

Full Text:



Ulrich, R. S., Zimring, C., Zhu, X., DuBose, J., Seo, H. B., Choi, Y. S., and Joseph, A. (2008). A review of the research literature on evidence-based healthcare design. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 1(3), 61-125.

Kaplan, A. (1980), “Sustainable Open Space Developmentâ€, Israel Journal of Environment 21(3):11-21.

Shane, D. G. (2011), “Transcending type: Designing for urban complexityâ€, Architectural Design, 81(1), 128-134.

Sport England (2014), “Designing and Implementing Sport and Recreational Facilityâ€,

Flynn, R. B. (1985), “Planning Facilities for Athletics, Physical Education, and Recreationâ€, Revised, Publication Sales, American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 1900 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091.

Kruger, J., Carlson, S. A., & Kohl III, H. W. (2007). Fitness facilities for adults: differences in perceived access and usage. American journal of preventive medicine, 32(6), 500-505.

American College of Sports Medicine, (2012), “ACSM's health/fitness facility standards and guidelinesâ€, Human Kinetics.

Perform Better, (2015), “Fitness Facility: Gym Designâ€.

McCarthy, T. (2003), “Do’s and don’ts of fitness facility layoutsâ€,

Club Industry, (2012), “Nine design tips from health club designers and architectsâ€,

Aulicino, G., Speccher, L., Felici, J., Gervasi, F., & Castaldi, S. (2020), “The main critical issues of the gym environment in an Italian cityâ€, Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunita, 32(3), 285-295.

Epps, J. (2019) “Working out Race, Class and Gender: A Study of Barriers to Gym Memberships in Baltimore Cityâ€, (Doctoral dissertation, The George Washington University).

Rapport, F., Hutchings, H., Doel, M. A., Wells, B., Clement, C., Mellalieu, S., & Sparkes, A. (2018), “How Are University Gyms Used by Staff and Students? A Mixed-Method Study Exploring Gym Use, Motivation, and Communication in Three UK Gymsâ€, Societies, 8(1), 15.

Peigang, Z., Yan, X., Su, H., & Jingjing, Z. (2017), “Sports Facility and Its Layout for Residents' Needsâ€, Planners, (4), 21.

Abbott, A. A. (2018) “Facility Layout and Maintenance Concerns†ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal, 22(1), 37-41.

Park, H. (2018) “A Study on the Planning Characteristics of Training Facilities Complex-Focusing on Training Facilities Planned through the Domestic Competitions after 2000sâ€, The Journal of Korean Institute of Educational Facilities, 25(1), 13-24.

Capasso, L., D'Alessandro, D., Popov, V. I., Libina, I. I., & Torubarova, I. I. (2020). Hygienic requirements for the construction and operation of sports facilities in the Russian Federation and Italyâ€, Гигиена и ÑанитариÑ, 99(1), 20-25.

Rimmer, J. H., Riley, B., Wang, E., & Rauworth, A. (2005) “Accessibility of health clubs for people with mobility disabilities and visual impairmentsâ€, American journal of public health, 95(11), 2022-2028.

Rimmer, J. H., Padalabalanarayanan, S., Malone, L. A., & Mehta, T. (2017) “Fitness facilities still lack accessibility for people with disabilitiesâ€, Disability and health journal, 10(2), 214-221.

Lewis, J. S. (2019) “Understanding Barriers Preventing Those with Limited Mobility from Obtaining Equal Access and Opportunity to Exercise and Achieve Overall Healthâ€, Advances in Exercise and Health for People with Mobility Limitations (pp. 157-189). Springer, Cham.

Grana, C. R. (2018) “Embracing inclusivity in fitness facilities and health clubsâ€, (Doctoral dissertation).

Calder, A., Sole, G., & Mulligan, H. (2018) “The accessibility of fitness centers for people with disabilities: a systematic reviewâ€, Disability and health journal, 11(4), 525-536.

Zhu, X. (2013) “Study on Natural Ecological Environment of Interior Design for Gymsâ€, Informatics and Management Science V (pp. 567-574). Springer, London.

Flourentzou, F., Pantet, S., & Ritz, K. (2017) “Design and performance of controlled natural ventilation in school gymnasiumsâ€, International Journal of Ventilation, 16(2), 112-123.

Ong, D. L. T., & Yap, W. X. (2017) “The impact of fitness center servicescape on individual behavior: The mediating role of emotional responseâ€, Journal of Global Sport Management, 2(2), 128-142.

Fottler, M. D., Ford, R. C., Roberts, V., & Ford, E. W. (2000). Creating a healing environment: The importance of the service setting in the new consumer-oriented healthcare system. Journal of Healthcare Management, 45(2), 91-106.

Sanfilippo, F. (2009), “Academic health centersâ€, Information Knowledge Systems Management, 8(1-4), 383-414.

Alexandris, K., Zahariadis, P., Tsorbatzoudis, C., & Grouios, G. (2004). An empirical investigation of the relationships among service quality, customer satisfaction, and psychological commitment in a health club context. European sport management quarterly, 4(1), 36-52.

Bitner, M. J. (1992). Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. Journal of Marketing, 56(2), 57-71.

Sallis, J. F., Nader, P. R., Rupp, J. W., Atkins, C. J., & Wilson, W. C. (1986). San Diego surveyed for heart-healthy foods and exercise facilities. Public Health Reports (1974), 216-219.

Ahmadi, A., Pishvaee, M. S., & Jokar, M. R. A. (2017). A survey on multi-floor facility layout problems. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 107, 158-170.

Kovács, G., & Kot, S. (2017). Facility layout redesign for efficiency improvement and cost reduction. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computational Mechanics, 16(1), 63-74.

DMAIC Process & Methodology: An Essential Guide. (2020, April 30). Retrieved from

Tompkins, J. A., White, J. A., Bozer, Y. A., & Tanchoco, J. M. A. (2010). Facilities planning. John Wiley & Sons.

Mahmood, O. K., Kareem, J. A. H., Rashid, W. N., & Abdulla, D. F. (2017). Facility layout design and its impact on the Healthcare Service Quality in Teaching Hospital and Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Sulaymaniyah city. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(2), 174-179.

Zha, S., Guo, Y., Huang, S., Wang, F., & Huang, X. (2017). Robust facility layout design under uncertain product demands. Procedia Cirp, 63, 354-359.

Zhang, Z., Donghua, L. I., Lihuan, A. I., Chen, J., Juan, X. U., & Xiao, L. (2016). Case study of clinic facility layout optimization at public hospitals. Chinese Journal of Hospital Administration, 32(6), 441-443.

Anjos, M. F., & Vieira, M. V. (2017). Mathematical optimization approaches for facility layout problems: State-of-the-art and future research directions. European Journal of Operational Research, 261(1), 1-16.

Arnolds, I., & Nickel, S. (2015). Layout planning problems in health care. In Applications of location analysis (pp. 109-152). Springer, Cham.

Arnolds, I. V., & Gartner, D. (2018). Improving hospital layout planning through clinical pathway mining. Annals of operations research, 263(1-2), 453-477.

Vahdat, V., Namin, A., Azghandi, R., & Griffin, J. (2019). Improving patient timeliness of care through efficient outpatient clinic layout design using data-driven simulation and optimisation. Health Systems, 8(3), 162-183.

Burmahl, B., Hoppszallern, S., & Morgan, J. (2017). 2017 Hospital Construction Survey. Health facilities management, 30(2), 18.

Fogliatto, F. S., Tortorella, G. L., Anzanello, M. J., & Tonetto, L. M. (2019). Lean-Oriented Layout Design of a Health Care Facility. Quality Management in Healthcare, 28(1), 25-32.

Benitez, G. B., Da Silveira, G. J., & Fogliatto, F. S. (2019). Layout Planning in Healthcare Facilities: A Systematic Review. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 12(3), 31-44.

Parsia, Y., & Tamyez, P. F. M. (2018). Role of Healthcare-Facilities Layout Design, Healing Architecture, On Quality of Services. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), 6(7), 80-92.

Lather, J. I. (2019). Hybrid Modeling Approach using Discrete Event Simulation and Layout Optimization for Healthcare Layout Planning Problems.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development