Anaerobic Digestion of Industrial Tempeh Wastewater with Sludge from Cow Manure Biogas Digester as Inoculum: Effect of F/M Ratio on the Methane Production

Yunus Fransiscus, Tuani L. Simangunsong


Industrial tempeh wastewater contains high organic compounds that will negatively affect the water ecosystem's quality whenever discharged without proper treatments. Biological treatment, in particular, anaerobic digestion, is the potential to be an effective solution for eliminating that contaminant. Considering its advantages, especially to produce methane gas, a study to evaluate the anaerobic digestion process's performance to reduce the organic substances in industrial tempeh wastewater was conducted. Sludge from cow manure biogas digester was used as inoculum to foster an anaerobic decomposition process. Hence the particular focus was given to elaborate the effect of F/M ratio on methane production. With a practical volume of 4L each, controlled batch reactors were employed with several operational parameters (pH, COD, VFAs) to be monitored to understand the process. Results elucidated that methane production was closely related to the composition of the substrate to microorganism. The maximum methane production (8720 mL) followed by the highest organic reduction (67.7%) were found in F/M = 1.12. The measured operational parameters informed a sequence of the process involved in the complete anaerobic decomposition. Accumulation of VFAs, because of higher substrate loading, tended to hamper methanogens metabolism resulted in low methane production. In addition to that, inoculum from biogas digester of cow manure was proved to play a significant role in the anaerobic decomposition for industrial tempeh wastewater. This finding is essential for arranging an effective yet low-cost wastewater treatment for tempeh producers, which is a basis for further study.


Anaerobic decomposition; F/M ratio; pH; COD; VFAs; methane.

Full Text:



Badan Standarisasi Nasional (2012) Tempeh: Persembahan Indonesia untuk Dunia [online]. Available:

Ministry of Environment, The Government of Indonesia (2014) The Decree on Effluent Standard for Industrial Wastewater [online]. Available:

L.C Direstiyani, “Review on the application of combination between anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and anaerobic/aerobic biofilter (AF) for treating industrial tempeh wastewaterâ€, M.Eng thesis, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), Surabaya, Indonesia, 2016.

A. Goli, A. Shamiri, S. Khosroyar, A. Talaiekhozani, R. Sanaye, K. Azizi, “A review on different aerobic and anaerobic treatment methods in dairy industry wastewaterâ€, J. Environ. Treat. Tech, vol.6 (1), pp. 113-141, 2019.

I.F.S Santos, R.M Barros, G.L.T Filho, “Electricity generation from biogas of anaerobic wastewater treatment plants in Brazil: an assessment of feasibility and potentialâ€, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.126, pp. 504-514, 2016.

A. Elreedy, A. Tawfik, A. Enitan, S. Kumari, F. Bux, “Pathways of 3-biofueles (hydrogen, ethanol and methane) production from petrochemical industry wastewater via anaerobic packed bed baffled reactor inoculated with mixed culture bacteriaâ€, Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 122, pp. 119-130, 2016.

B. Wang, Y. Li, D. Wang, R. Liu, Z. Wei, N. Ren, “Simultaneous coproduction of hydrogen and methane from sugary wastewater by an ACSTRH-UASBMet systemâ€, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 38, pp. 7774-7779, 2013.

P. Intanoo, P. Rangsanvigit, P. Maalakul, S. Chvadej, “Optimization of separate hydrogen and methane production from cassava wastewater using two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) system under thermophilic operationâ€, Bioresource Technology, vol. 173, pp. 256-265, 2014.

Y.S Wong, T.T Teng, S.A Ong, M. Norhashimah, M. Rafatullah, J.Y. Leong, “Methane gas production from palm oil wastewater-an anaerobic methanogenic degradation process in continuos stirrer suspended closed anaerobic reactorâ€, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol.45, pp. 896-900, 2014.

V. Stazi, M.C. Tomei, “Enhancing anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater: state of th art, innovative technologies and future prospectivesâ€, Science of the Total Environment, vol. 635, pp. 78 – 91, 2018.

M. Sarioglu (Cebeci), O.B Gokcek, “Treatment of automotive industry wastewater using anaerobic batch reactors: the influence of substrate/inoculum and molasses/wastewaterâ€, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, vol. 102, pp. 648-654, 2016.

A. Aziz, F. Basheer, A. Sengar, Irfanullah, S.U. Khan, I.H. Farooqi, “Biological wastewater treatment (Anaerobic-aerobic) technologies for safe discharge of treated slaughterhouse and meat processing wastewaterâ€, Science of The Total Environment, vol. 686, pp. 681 – 708, 2019.

F. Raposo, M.A D Rubia, V. Fernandez-Cegri, R. Borja, “Anaerobic digestion of solid organic substrates in batch mode: an overview relating to methane yields and experimental proceduresâ€, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, pp.861-877, 2011.

P. Latifi, M. Karrabi, S. Danesh, “Anaerobic co-digestion of poultry slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge in batch-mode bioreactors (effect of inoculum-substrate ratio and total solids)â€, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 107, pp. 288-296, 2019.

C. Mao, J. Xi, Y. Feng, X. Wang, G. Ren, “Biogas production and synergistic correlations of systematic paramaters during batch anaerobic digestion of corn strawâ€, Renewable Energy, vol. 132, pp. 1271-1279, 2019.

A. Schnurer, A. Jarvis, “A. Microbiological handbook for biogas plantsâ€, Swedish Waste Management, Rep. 1 – 74, 2010.

S. Sarker, J.J Lamb, D.R Hjelme and K.M Lien, “A review of the role of critical parameters in the design and operation of biogas production plantsâ€, Applied Science, vol. 9, pp. 1-38, 2019.

E. Elbeshbishy, G. Nakhla, “Batch anaerobic co-digestion of proteins and carbohydratesâ€, Bioresource Technology, vol. 116, pp.170-178, 2012.

T. Sayara and A. Sanchez, “A review on anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic wastes: pre-treatments and operational conditionsâ€, Applied Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 1-23, 2019.

C. Zhang, G. Xiao, L. Peng, H. Su, T. Tan, “The anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and cattle manureâ€, Bioresource Technology, vol. 129, pp. 170 – 176, 2013.

A. Xia, J. Cheng, J.D Murphy, “Innovation in biological production and upgrading of methane and hydrogen for use as gaseous transport biofuelâ€, Biotechnology Advances, vol. 34, pp. 451-472, 2016.

J. Jiang, Y. Zhang, K. Li, Q. Wang, C. Gong, M. Li, “Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, tempehrature and organic loading rateâ€, Bioresource Technology, vol, 143, pp. 525-530, 2013.

Y. Wang, B. Zang, X. Gong, Y. Liu, G. Li, “Effects of pH buffering agents on the anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage of kitchen wasteâ€, Waste Management, vol. 68, pp. 603-609, 2017.

C.P.C Bong, L.Y Lim, C.T Lee, J.J Klemes, C.S Ho, W.S Ho, “The characterization and treatment of food waste for improvement of biogas production during anaerobic digestion – a reviewâ€, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 172, pp. 1545-1558, 2018.

S. Hedge and T.A Trabold, “Anaerobic digestion of food waste with unconventional co-substrates for stable biogas production at high organic loading ratesâ€, Sustainability, vol.11, pp. 1-15, 2019.

W. Zhang, L. Li, W. Xing, B. Chen, L. Zhang, A. Li, R. Li and T. Yang, “Dynamic behaviors of batch anaerobic systems of food waste for methane production under different organic loads, substrate to inoculum ratios and initial pHâ€, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 128, pp. 733-743, 2019.

G. Cuff, A.E. Turcios, E.M. Pajooh, O. Kujawski, D. Weichgrebe, K.H. Rosenwinkel, “High-rate anaerobic treatment of wastewater from soft drink industry: methods, performance and experiencesâ€, Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 220, pp. 8 – 15, 2018.

S.K Awasthi, R. Joshi, H. Dhar, S. Verma, M.K Awasthi, S. Varjani, S. Sarsaiya, Z. Zhang, S. Kumar, “Improving methane yield and quality via co-digestion of cow dung mixed with food wasteâ€, Bioresource Technology, vol. 251, pp. 259-263, 2018.

F.M Pellera, E. Gidarakos, “Effect of substrate to inoculum ratio and inoculum type on the biochemical methne potential of solid agroindustrial wasteâ€, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 3217-3229, 2016.

D.P Van, T. Fujiwara, B.L Tho, P.P.S Toan, G.H Minh, “A review of anaerobic digestion systems for biodegradable waste: configurations, operating parameters and current trendsâ€, Environmental Engineering Research, vol. 25(1), pp. 1-17, 2020.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development