SAFA and GeoGebra Allies to Evaluate Natural and Cultural Sustainability: Yasuni Biosphere Reserve

Marco Heredia, Bolier Torres, Reinaldo Alemán, Carlos Bravo, Carlos Hernández Díaz-Ambrona


The Yasuni Biosphere Reserve (YBR) occupies a unique biogeographic position in the world, where the richness of the four taxa (amphibians, birds, mammals and vascular plants) reaches maximum diversity. However, threats to species conservation are latent: the opening of roads, illegal logging, the advance of the agricultural frontier, oil extraction and the trade of wild meat in the western sector of the reserve. This paper aims to evaluate the sustainability of natural resources in multicultural communities: 1) Waorani Indigenous and 2) Migrant settlers, settled in the Diversity and Life Strip (DLS) in the YBR. Three households were defined per community, selected from the snowball sampling method. Thus, three methodological processes were applied: 1) Sustainability of natural resources using the SAFA program (version 2.4.1), it has four dimensions Good Governance (GG), Environmental Integrity (EI), Economic Resilience (ER) and Social Welfare (SW); 2) Direct observation; and 3) Lacing algorithm with the GeoGebra program used for the calculation of areas of simple polygons. The results showed that the dimension of least sustainability was ER in indigenous households and in-migrant settler households it was ER and SW. The largest sustainability area of 25,12 u2 in the migrant settler household1, while in Waorani indigenous the worst sustainability area had a value of 18,69 u2. The programs allow to promote a better understanding of the dynamics of the sustainability of natural resources. The issues identified as limited in the communities are a priority to improve sustainability.



Amazon; hotspots; migrant settlers; sustainability software; waorani.

Full Text:



Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J: Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858 2000.

Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Brooks TM, Pilgrim JD, Konstant WR, et al.: Wilderness and biodiversity conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100: 10309–10313 2003.

Ter Steege, H., Pitman, N. C., Phillips, O. L., Chave, J., Sabatier, D., Duque, A. and Von Hildebrand, P.: Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia. Nature, 443(7110), 444, 2006.

Bass MS, Finer M, Jenkins CN, Kreft H, Cisneros-Heredia DF, et al. Global Conservation Significance of Ecuador’s Yasunı´ National Park. PLoS. ONE 5(1): e8767. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008767 2010.

Soares-Filho BS, Nepstad DC, Curran LM, Cerqueira GC, Garcia RA, et al.: Modeling conservation in the Amazon Basin. Nature 440: 520–523, 2006.

Nepstad DC, Stickler CM, Soares-Filho BS, Merry F: Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: Prospects for a near-term forest tipping point. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363: 1737–1746, 2008.

Taco MP: El Parque Nacional Yasuní. In: Jorgenson JP, Rodríguez MC, editors. Conservación y desarrollo sostenible del Parque Nacional Yasuní y su área de influencia. Quito, Ecuador: Ministerio del Ambiente/UNESCO/Wildlife Conservation Society. pp. 48–51, 2001.

Finer M, Vijay V, Ponce F, Jenkins CN, Kahn TR: Ecuador's Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: A brief modern history and conservation challenges. Environmental Research Letters 4: 034005 (15 p.), 2009.

Albacete C, Espinosa P, Prado W: Rapid evaluation of the Gran Yasuní Napo. Durham, NC: ParksWatch. 26 p. 2004.

Killeen TJ, Solórzano LA: Conservation strategies to mitigate impacts from climate change in Amazonia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363: 1881–1888. 2008.

Maher JL, Espinosa S: Camera trap photos reveal bushmeat hunting threat to jaguars in Ecuador. Available: Accessed 2019/10/09, 2009.

Wildlife Conservation Society: Efectos de las carreteras sobre la fauna silvestre en el Parque Nacional Yasuní. Wildlife Conservation Society Boletín 1: 1–7, 2006.

Zapata-Ríos G, Suárez E, Utreras B V, Vargas J: Evaluation of anthropogenic threats in Yasuní National Park and its implications for wild mammal conservation. Lyonia 10: 47– 57. (2006)

Wunder S: Oil wealth and the fate of the forest. New York, NY: Routledge. 456 p. 2003.

Sierra R: A spatial analysis of the ecological and socioeconomic outcomes of agricultural frontier expansion in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Working Paper. Austin, TX: The University of Texas at Austin, 2004.

Zapata Cárdenas, M. I., & Marín Ochoa, B. E.: Ruralidad y dispositivos móviles: apropiación social y uso de la Tableta de Información Cafetera TIC. Estudio de caso Federación Nacional de Cafeteros para Antioquia, 2015.

Njenga, P., Frida, M. Opio, R.: Empoderamiento de jóvenes y mujeres a través de la agricultura en Kenia. Servicio voluntario en el extranjero (VSO-Jitolee). Nairobi, Kenia, 2012.

Irungu, K. R. G., Mbugua, D., & Muia, J.: Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) attract youth into profitable agriculture in Kenya. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 81(1), 24-33, 2015.

International Institute for Communication and Development (IICD): Youth, ICTs and agriculture: Exploring how digital tools and skills influence the motivation of young farmers. IICD, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2013.

Tharakan, J.: Integrating indigenous knowledge into appropriate technology development and implementation. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 7:5, 364-370, DOI: 10.1080/20421338.2015.1085176, 2015.

Murphy L, Bilsborrow R, Pichón F: Poverty and prosperity among migrant settlers in the Amazon rainforest frontier of Ecuador. The Journal of Development Studies. 34(2):35–66, 1997.

Boserup E.: The conditions of agricultural growth: The economics of agrarian change under population pressure. New Brunswick, USA: Transaction Publishers, 1965.

Schwartzman S, Moreira A, Nepstad D.: Rethinking Tropical Forest Conservation: Perils in Parks. Conservation Biology. 14(5):1351–7, 2000.

Rudel TK, Bates D, Machinguiashi R.: Ecologically Noble Amerindians? Cattle Ranching and Cash Cropping among Shuar and Colonists in Ecuador. Latin American Research Review.; 37(1):144–59, 2002.

Nepstad D, Schwartzman S, Bamberger B, Santilli M, Ray D, Schlesinger P, et al.: Inhibition of Amazon Deforestation and Fire by Parks and Indigenous Lands. Conservation Biology.;20(1):65–73. pmid:16909660, 2006.

FAO: State of the World’s Forests Rome: United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization, 2018.

Davis J, Bilsborrow R, Gray C.: Delayed Fertility Transition among Indigenous Women: A Case Study in the Ecuadorian Amazon. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health.41(1):1–10. 2015.

Vasco C, Tamayo G, Griess V.: The Drivers of Market Integration Among Indigenous Peoples: Evidence from the Ecuadorian Amazon. Society & Natural Resources, 2017.

Galeas, R., Guevara, J. E., Medina-Torres, B., Chinchero, M. Ã., & Herrera, X.: Sistema de clasificación de los Ecosistemas del Ecuador Continental. Subsecretaría de Patrimonio Natural, Quito (Spanish), 2012.

Maffi L, Woodley E.: Biocultural Diversity Conservation: A Global Sourcebook. Londres, Reino Unido: Earthscan Ltd. p. 313, 2010.

Pimm, S. L., & Jenkins, C.: Sustaining the variety of life. Scientific American, 293(3), 66- 73, 2005.

Rival, L: Trekking through history: the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Lu, F. E.: The common property regime of the Huaorani Indians of Ecuador: Implications and challenges to conservation. Human Ecology, 29(4), 425-447, 2001.

Torres, B., Maza, O. J., Aguirre, P., Hinojosa, L., & Günter, S.: The contribution of traditional agroforestry to climate change adaptation in the Ecuadorian Amazon: The Chakra system. Handbook of climate change adaptation, 1973-1994, 2015.

Rival, L.: Transformaciones huaoranis: frontera, cultura y tensión. Quito: Universidad Andina Simón Bolivar. Abya Yala. Latin American Centre-University of Oxford, 2015.

Wierucka, A.: Huaorani of the Western Snippet. Springer. 2016.

Mecham, J.: Causes and consequences of deforestation in Ecuador. Centro de Investigacion de los Bosques Tropicales, 2001.

Cisneros, C., Presten, D. A., Ibarra, H., Martínez, L., Lentz, C., Pachano, S., et al.: Población, migración y empleo en el Ecuador. FLACSO, (Spanish), 1988.

Pichón, F.J.: Settler households and land-use patterns in the Amazon frontier: farm-level evidence from Ecuador. World Development, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp.67-91, 16, 1997.

Cavendish, W.: Poverty, inequality and environmental resources: Quantitative analysis of rural households. Working Paper Series, 99 – 9. Oxford, UK. Centre for the Studies of African Economies, University of Oxford, 1999.

Cavendish, W.: Quantitative methods for estimating the economic value of resource use to rural households. In Uncovering the hidden harvest (pp. 33-81). Routledge, 2012.

Kirchherr, J., & Charles, K.: Enhancing the sample diversity of snowball samples: Recommendations from a research project on anti-dam movements in Southeast Asia. PloS one, 13(8), e0201710, 2018.

Cooke R, Jones A.: Recruiting adult participants to physical activity intervention studies using sport: a systematic review. BMJ open Sport Exerc Med.;3(1): e000231. pmid:28761714, 2017.

Cepeda A, Valdez A.: Ethnographic Strategies in the Tracking and Retention of Street-Recruited Community-Based Samples of Substance Using Hidden Populations in Longitudinal Studies. Subst Use Misuse. Mar; 45(5):700–16. pmid:20222780, 2010.

Morgan DL.: Snowball sampling. In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, United States: SAGE Publications, 2008.

FAO: Estrategia Institucional sobre el Desarrollo de la Capacidad. Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación. p. 10. Available in: 2010.

FAO: SAFA Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems: Tool User Manual Version 2.4.1; FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Roma, Italy. p. 20, 2014.

FAO: SAFA Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems: Indicators Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Roma, Italy, p. 271, 2013.

Campos, G., & Martínez, N. E. L.: La observación, un método para el estudio de la realidad. Xihmai, 7(13), 45-60, 2012.

Sutton, J., & Austin, Z.: Qualitative research: Data collection, analysis, and management. The Canadian journal of hospital pharmacy, 68(3), 226, 2015.

Zwillinger, D.: CRC standard mathematical tables and formulae. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2002.

Hohenwarter, M and Jones, I.: BSRLM Geometry Working Group. Ways of linking geometry and algebra, the case of Geogebra. Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics, 27 (3), 126-131, 2007.

Demir, O.: Students’ concept development and understanding of sine and cosine functions (Doctoral dissertation, Master’s thesis) 2012.

González, H.: Una propuesta para la enseñanza de las funciones trigonométricas seno y coseno integrando GeoGebra. Tesis doctoral. Santiago de Cali: Universidad del Valle, 2012.

Cotic, N. S.: GeoGebra como puente para aprender matemática. Buenos Aires: Congreso Iberoamericano, 2014.

Krysińska-Kałużna, M.: La actividad misionera de unas misiones de fe entre los grupos indígenas de la región amazónica y los intereses políticos de los gobiernos latinoamericanos. Anuario Latinoamericano–Ciencias Políticas y Relaciones Internacionales. 2016.

Rival, L.: "Huaorani Peace: Cultural Continuity and Negotiated Alterity in the Ecuadorian Amazon." Common Knowledge, vol. 21 no. 2, p. 270-305. Project MUSE, 2015.

Jadán, O., Cifuentes Jara, M., Torres, B., Selesi, D., Veintimilla Ramos, D. A., & Günter, S.: Influence of tree cover on diversity, carbon sequestration and productivity of cocoa systems in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Bois et Forets des TropiquesVolumen 325, número 3, 17, 2015.

Vera, V., Cota-Sánchez, J. H., & Grijalva Olmedo, J. E.: Biodiversity, dynamics, and impact of chakras on the Ecuadorian Amazon. Journal of Plant Ecology, 2017.

Vera-Vélez, R., Grijalva, J., & Cota-Sánchez, J. H.: Cocoa agroforestry and tree diversity in relation to past land use in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon. New Forests, 1-20, 2019.

Gray C.L., Bilsborrow R.E., Bremner J.L., Lu F.: Indigenous land use in the Ecuadorian Amazon: a cross-cultural and multilevel analysis Human Ecol., 36 pp. 97-109, 2008,

Lu F., Gray C.L., Bilsborrow R.E., Mena C., Bremner J.R., Barbieri A., Erlien C., S.: Walsh Contrasting colonist and indigenous impacts on Amazonian forests. Conserv. Biol., 24, pp. 881-885, 2010.

Soldi, A., Aparicio Meza, M. J., Guareschi, M., Donati, M., & Insfrán Ortiz, A.: Sustainability Assessment of Agricultural Systems in Paraguay: A Comparative Study Using FAO’s SAFA Framework. Sustainability, 11(13), 3745, 2019.

Nicholls, A., & Huybrechts, B.: Sustaining inter-organizational relationships across institutional logics and power asymmetries: The case of fair trade. Journal of Business Ethics, 135(4), 699-714, 2016.

Kerrissey, J.: Collective labor rights and income inequality. American Sociological Review, 80(3), 626-653, 2015.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development