Detecting the Usage of Vulgar Words in Cyberbully Activities from Twitter

Nursyahirah Tarmizi, Suhaila Saee, Dayang Hanani Abang Ibrahim


Nowadays, nearly all people utilize the device which is connected to Internet. People are accustomed to the use information technology devices in their daily life to interact with other people. Currently, many social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube are becoming popular. This study selected Twitter platforms, which is started to gain popularity. By the rapid growth of users signing up for Twitter accounts, at the same time, cybercrime started to bloom each year in social media platforms. Cyberbully is one of the cybercrime practices which had caused a significant impact on the targeted victims. The victims experienced social pressure, which they need to bear each day while the bullies stayed free behind the veil of anonymity. This study aims to identify the common vulgar words used by the cyberbullies on Twitter. Also, this study is subject to produce essential features of Twitter based on the collected tweets. The evaluation in this study includes the occurrences of the vulgar word perpetrated by the cyberbullies from Twitter. This study detected the usage of vulgar words in cyberbully activities on Twitter platform. A list of vulgar words were extracted and evaluated from a corpus of 50 Twitter users who posted a various number of tweets. The vulgar words detection in the tweets enable the tracking process of the cyberbully activities. In the evaluation section, we discussed how the usage of the vulgar words would define the user’s earnestness in doing the cyberbully activities in the Twitter. This study shows there are users with a low number of tweets have a high number of vulgar words occurrences, while other users with high numbers of tweets but less number of vulgar words occurrences. The information collected in this study is expected to assist marking users with a high number of vulgar words occurrences who tend to have high possibilities in doing cyber-bully activities.


cyberbully; detection; Twitter; social media; vulgar words.

Full Text:



N. M. Zainudin, K. H. Zainal, N. A. Hasbullah, N. A. Wahab and S. Ramli, "A Review on Cyberbullying in Malaysia from Digital Forensic Perspective," in 2016 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICICTM), Kuala Lumpur, 2016.

F. Martin, C. Wang, T. Petty, W. Wang and P. Wilkin, "Middle School Students’ Social Media Use," Educational Technology & Society, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 213–224, 2018.

R. Sabillon, J. Cano, V. Cavaller and J. Serra, "Cybercrime and Cybercriminals: A Comprehensive Study," International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 165–176 , 2016.

A. Alexandrou, "Cybercrime," International and Transnational Crime and Justice, vol. 10, p. 61, 2019.

I. L. Liu, C. M. Cheung and M. K. Lee, "User satisfaction with microblogging: Information dissemination versus social networking," Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 56-70, 2016.

S. A. Özel, E. Saraç and S. Akdemir, "Detection of cyberbullying on social media messages in Turkish," in Computer Science and Engineering (UBMK), 2017 International Conference, Antalya, 2017.

M. A. Al-garadi, K. D. Varathan and S. D. Ravana, "Cybercrime detection in online communications: The experimental case of cyberbullying detection in the Twitter network," Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 63, pp. 433-443, 2016.

P. Sara and V. Heidi, "An investigation of short-term longitudinal associations between social anxiety and victimization and perpetration of traditional bullying and cyberbullying," Journal of youth and adolescence, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 328-339, 2016.

R. Festl and T. Quandt, "The role of online communication in long-term cyberbullying involvement among girls and boys," Journal of youth and adolescence, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1931-1945, 2016.

A. M. Chandrashekhar, M. G. S and A. D. K, "Cyberstalking and Cyberbullying: Effects and prevention measures," Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR), vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 95-102, 2016.

Ditch The Label, "The Anual Bullying Survey 2017," Ditch the Label, United Kingdom, 2017.

"The Statistic Portal," Statista, April 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 7 July 2018].

G.Sarna and M.Bhatia, "Content based approach to find the credibility of user in social networks: an application of cyberbullying," International Journal Of Machine Learning and Cybernetics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 677-689, 2017.

R. Garett, L. R. Lord and S. D. Young, "Associations between social media and cyberbullying: a review of the literature," Mhealth, vol. 2, no. 8, p. 46, 2016.

A. Usha and S. M. Thampi, "Usha, A., & Thampi, S. M. (2017, December). Authorship Analysis of Social Media Contents Using Tone and Personality Features," in International Conference on Security, Privacy and Anonymity in Computation, Communication and Storage, Cham, 2017.

B. Mascotto, "Exploring the Impact of Anonymity on Cyberbullying in Adolescents:," University of Victoria, Victoria, 2008.

E. Raisi and B. Huang, "Cyberbullying Identification Using Participant-Vocabulary Consistency," in ICML Workshop on #Data4Good: Machine Learning in, New York, 2016.

D. Chatzakou, N. Kourtellis, J. Blackburn, E. D. Cristofaro, G. Stringhini and A. Vakali, "Mean Birds: Detecting Aggression and Bullying on Twitter," in Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web Companion, Perth, 2017.

P. Gal´an-Garc´ıa, J. G. d. l. Puerta, C. L. G´omez, I. Santos and P. G. Bringas, "Supervised machine learning for the detection of troll profiles in twitter social network: Application to a real case of cyberbullying," Logic Journal of the IGPL, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 42-53, 2016.

A. Rocha, W. J. Scheirer, C. W. Forstall, T. Cavalcante, A. Theophilo, B. Shen, A. Carvalho and E. Stamatatos, "Authorship Attribution for Social Media Forensics," IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, pp. 5-33, 2017.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development