The Performance of Antifouling Paint for Prolonged Exposure in Madura Strait, East Java Province, Indonesia

Gadang Priyotomo, Siska Prifiharni, Lutviasari Nuraini, Ahmad Royani, - Sundjono, Hadi Gunawan


Antifouling paints are commonly utilized to minimize attached biofouling on the submerged marine structure. The evaluation of commercial both antifouling (AF) paints (Paint A and Paint B) for prolonged exposure has been investigated through field test in Suramadu Bridge, Madura strait, East Java Province, Indonesia. In addition, commercial anti-corrosion (AC) paints were also studied as a controlled coated specimen. The test panels containing all specimens of paint were exposure up to 3-months. Seawater quality parameters consisting of temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were also measured during the test field. The coating properties, which consist of thickness, gloss, hardness, and adhesion strength, were carried out. It was found that both antifouling paints are remarkable to protect attached fouling organisms, but not anti-corrosion paints. Both antifouling paints' properties gradually decrease, such as adhesion strength and gloss, but not in their hardness. There were attached various fouling organisms such as barnacles, tubeworms, and brown algae, where barnacles mainly in the surface of both AC paints after exposure. Based on the result, there was no or less primary biocide of Cu2O in both AF paints where that biocide can inhibit those fouling after three months of exposure. The rapid reduction of thickness for both AF paints is maybe predominantly induced by seawater current rather than pH, salinity, and temperature.


Antifouling paint; seawater; corrosion; salinity; coating.

Full Text:



Rafael S. Peres, Elaine Armelin, Juan A. Moreno-Martínez, Carlos Alemán, Carlos A. Ferreira.,2015, Transport and Antifouling Properties of Papain-based Antifouling Coatings, Appl. Surf. Sci., 341,75–85.

Erik Ytreberg, Maria Alexandra Bighiu, Lennart Lundgren, Britta Eklund.,2016, XRF Measurements of Tin, Copper and Zinc in Antifouling Paints Coated on Leisure Boats, Environ. Pollut., 213, 594 – 599.

Gadang Priyotomo, Lutviasari Nuraini, Siska Prifiharni and Sundjono.,2018, A Short Review of Antifouling Paint Performance in Tropical Seawater of Indonesia, Res. Dev. Mater. Sci. 8(4),1-2.

Lutviasari Nuraini, Siska Prifiharni, Gadang Priyotomo, Sundjono, Hadi Gunawan.,2017, Evaluation of Anticorrosion and Antifouling Paint Performance after Exposure under Seawater Surabaya-Madura (Suramadu) Bridge, AIP Conf. Proc. 1823, 020101.

Turner, A.,2010, Review: Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles, Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60,159–171.

Diego Meseguer Yebra, Søren Kiil, Kim Dam-Johansen.,2004, Antifouling Technology—Past, Present and Future Steps Towards Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Antifouling Coatings, Prog. Org. Coat. 50,75–104.

N.M.Farhat, J.S.Vrouwenvelder, M.C.M.Van Loosdrecht, Sz.S.Bucs, M.Staal.,2016, Effect of Water Temperature on Biofouling Development in Reverse Osmosis Membrane Systems, Water Res., 103.149-159.

Elisabete Almeida, Teresa C. Diamantino, Orlando de Sousa.,2007, Marine Paints: The Particular Case of Antifouling Paints. Prog. Org. Coat. 59,2–20, 2007.

Ewan M. McNeil., 2018, Antifouling: Regulation of biocides in the UK before and after Brexit, Mar. Policy, 92, 58–60.

Miriam Pérez, Mónica García, Guillermo Blustein.,2015, Evaluation of Low Copper Content Antifouling Paints Containing Natural Phenolic Compounds as Bioactive Additives, Mar. Environ. Res., 109,177-184.

Iris Ho¨ lken, Mathias Hoppe,Yogendra K. Mishra, Stanislav N. Gorb, Rainer Adelung and Martina J. Baum.,2016, Complex Shaped ZnO Nano- and Microstructure Based Polymer Composites: Mechanically Stable and Environmentally Friendly Coatings for Potential Antifouling Applications. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.,18,7114-7123.

J. Fredrik Lindgren, Erik Ytreberg, Albin Holmqvist, Magnus Dahlström, Peter Dahl, Mattias Berglin, Anna-Lisa Wrange & Mia Dahlström.,2018, Copper Release Rate Needed to Inhibit Fouling on The West Coast of Sweden and Control of Copper Release Using Zinc Oxide.Biofouling, 34(4),453-463, 2018.

Nelamane Vijayakumar Ravi Kumar, Ramasamy Venkatesan and Mukesh Doble.,2014, Polymers in a Marine Environment. India: Smithers Rapra Publishing.

Ed Petrie. (2019, August 6). Fundamentals of Paint Adhesion. Retrieved from

Maria Lagerströma, J. Fredrik Lindgren, Albin Holmqvist, Mia Dahlström, Erik Ytreberg.,2018, In Situ Release Rates of Cu and Zn from Commercial Antifouling Paints at Different Salinities. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 127, 289–296.

Mukherjeea, M. Joshi, S.C. Misra, U.S. Ramesh.,2019, Antifouling Paint Schemes for Green SHIPS. Ocean Eng., 173, 227–234.

M. J. Suriani, S. Ramlan, and W. B. Wan Nik.,2016, Antifouling Properties of Zinc Nitrate in Seawater. Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl.,7(5),314-318.

Rafael S. Peresa, Alessandra F. Baldissera, Elaine Armelin, Carlos Alemán, Carlos A. Ferreira.,2014, Marine-Friendly Antifouling Coating Based on the Use of a Fatty Acid Derivative as a Pigment. Mater. Res., 17(3),720-727.

Ryuji Kojima, Osamu Miyata, Toshiaki Shibata, Tetsuya Senda.,2016, Leaching Phenomena of Antifouling Agents from Ships` Hull Paints. J. Shipp. Ocean Eng.,6(5).

Nandita. (2019, August 6). What are the causes and effects of ocean currents? Retrieved from the-causes-and-effects-of ocean-currents/2814

Adil Mahfudz Firdaus, Tridoyo Kusumastanto, I Wayan Nurjaya. ,2014, Analisis Kelayakan Teknis dan Finansial Pengembangan Energi rus Laut di Selat Madura. J. Apl. Manaj.,12(3), 512-520.

Intissar Amaraa, Wafa Miled, Rihab Ben Slama, Neji Ladhari.,2018. Antifouling Processes and Toxicity Effects of Antifouling Paints on Marine Environment. A Review. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 57,115–130.

L.D. Chambers, K.R. Stokes, F.C. Walsh, R.J.K. Wood.,2006, Modern Approaches to Marine Antifouling Coatings. Surf. Coat. Technol., 201,3642 –3652.

Yebra, D.M., Kiil, S. and Dam-Johansen, K., 2004, Antifouling Technology—Past, Present and Future Steps Towards Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Antifouling Coatings, Prog. Org. Coat., 50, 75–104.

Ryuji Kojima, Toshiaki Shibata, and Koichi Ueda.,2016. Leaching Phenomena of Antifouling Agents from Ships’ Hull Paints, J. Shipp. Ocean Eng, 685.

A.Mukherjee, M. Joshi, S. C. Misra, and U. S. Ramesh.,2019, Antifouling paint schemes for green SHIPS, Ocean Eng.,227–234, 2019.

E. Ytreberg, J. Karlsson, and B. Eklund.,2010. Comparison of toxicity and release rates of Cu and Zn from anti fouling paints leached in natural and artificial brackish seawater, Sci. Total Environ., 408(12), 2459–2466.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development